Addison’s Disease Sample PaperAccording to Huether and McCance (2017), Addison’s disease is an auto-immune disorder marked by adrenal insufficiency and is more common in white women than all ethnicities of men. Relatively rare, this disease most often occurs between the ages of 30-60 (Huether &McCance, 2017).Addison’s Disease Sample Paper Addison’s disease is an inherited disorder, however, research on the pathway of genetic inheritability has been limited because the genotype of a patient does not always predict their phenotype and the rarity of disease inhibits large scale genetic analysis (Mitchell & Pearce, 2012). According to Mitchell and Pearce (2012), it is a progressive disease with symptoms developing over months or years. Initial clinical manifestations of disease will appear in the increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone and renin well before adrenal failure develops (Mitchell & Pearce, 2012).
Pathological changes of the adrenal glands (including adrenal atrophy) are combined with fatigue, hypotension, weight loss and hyper skin pigmentation (Mitchell & Pearce, 2012). The steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortex of the patient with Addison’s disease become targets for the immune system to attack (Mitchell & Pearce, 2012).Addison’s Disease Sample Paper The presence of circulating steroid 21-hydroxylase antibodies is a reliable predictor of Addison’s Disease, this is normally located on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of intact cells (Mitchell & Pearce, 2012). This can lead to other autoimmune responses in the body, metastatic malignancy, amyloidosis, hemorrhage, infections, adrenoleuko dystrophy, or sarcoidosis. Other clinical manifestations include low levels of cortisol in serum and urine tests, increased ACTH levels, BUN increases (due to dehydration), Eosinophil and lymphocyte elevations, hyperkalemia and mild alkalosis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Treatment involves glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement for life as well as increases in sodium intake if patient experiences excessive sweating and diarrhea.
Addison’s disease is a disorder of the endocrine system. It is a hormonal disorder that can strike anyone, any gender at any age. Addison’s disease has also been called Adrenal Insufficiency (hypocortisolism) because the root of the disease is in the adrenal gland not producing enough of the hormone cortisol, or sometimes not enough of the hormone aldosterone to satisfy the body’s needs. Cortisol is in the class of hormones called glucocorticoids and affects almost every organ in the body.Addison’s Disease Sample Paper One of the most important functions of cortisol is to help regulate the body’s response to stress. Cortisol is also responsible for other necessary functions including: helping to maintain blood pressure and…show more content…
Some symptoms that can also occur in some patients are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The previously mentioned symptoms are fairly common with many different disorders however some of the most defining symptoms of Addison’s disease are low blood pressure that drops when standing, and skin changes or hyperpigmentation that is most visible on areas of the body such as scars, knees, elbows, knuckles, lips, and skin folds. Patients can also suffer from depression, irritability, and a craving for salt, and amenorrhea in female patients.Addison’s Disease Sample Paper Diagnosing Addison’s disease is most accurately done with biochemical laboratory tests which consist of an injection of ACTH then monitoring the ACTH output in a patient’s urine and/or the levels of ACTH in the patient’s blood to see how the person’s body reacts to the injection. Physicians can also detect Addison’s disease by an insulin-induced hypoglycemia test, which monitors how the adrenal glands, the pituitary glands, and the hypothalamus respond to stress. In this test the patient’s levels of blood glucose and cortisol are measured over an hour and a half following an injection of fast acting insulin. Physicians may also use test such as x-rays of the adrenal glands to check for calcium deposits that may indicate TB. Physicians my also use different imaging tools such as a CT scan to compare the size and shape of the patient’s pituitary gland.Addison’s Disease Sample Paper