Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

 

Blood pressure is the force at which blood pushes against the walls of your arteries. (Coventry lecture notes) Blood needs to be under a certain amount of pressure in the arteries to get the blood around the body (British Heart Foundation 2010). High blood pressure known as hypertension puts strain on the heart and blood vessels which can then increase the risk of heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure and eye damage (BDA 2016). Blood pressure is monitored in the body by control centres in the cardiovascular centre found in the medulla oblongata of the brain and the adrenal medulla which is next to the kidney.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

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Neuronal Mechanisms in the control of blood pressure:
Baroreceptors are sensory receptors which detect changes in pressure and stretch in the walls of arteries. They then send signals to the cardiovascular centre to reverse the change. Baroreceptors are found in large arteries in the neck and chest such as the aorta and internal carotid arteries. High blood pressure results in the carotid sinus (in the artery wall) being stretched more because the blood is pushing against the artery walls, this stimulates the baroreceptors which quickly send impulses to the medulla oblongata in the brain (Tortora and Derrickson 2009).Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers. The medulla oblongata increases parasympathetic activity to the sinoatrial node of the heart and decreases sympathetic activity. The parasympathetic nervous system works by increasing the diameter of the arteries, slowing the heart rate and decreasing the amount of blood pumped by the heart per heart beat (stroke volume), this results in a lowered blood pressure (Coventry lecture notes)
Chemoreceptors are sensory receptors which detect changes in the amount of chemicals in the blood, for example carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen ion concentrations. They are found near the baroreceptors in the arch of the aorta in structures called carotid and aortic bodies. Changes in the concentrations of chemicals in the blood stimulates the chemoreceptors to send signals to the medulla oblongata in the brain. This leads to an increase in activity in the sympathetic nervous system which narrows the blood vessels (vasoconstriction) and increases the heart rate, stroke volume and blood pressure (Tortora and Derrickson 2009).Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Hormonal Mechanisms in the control of blood pressure:
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system: Juxta-glomerular cells in the kidney secrete renin, which is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down using water) angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) changes angiotensin I into angiotensin II (Tortora and Derrickson 2009). Angiotensin and angiotensin II are substances that cause the blood vessels to become narrower (vasoconstriction) and therefore increases blood pressure as the blood is travelling in a smaller space (Edward D and Frohlich MD 1983). Angiotensin II levels increase 2-3 times in obese patients (Guyton and Hall). This explains why people who are obese tend to have high blood pressure because they have more angiotensin II which narrows the blood vessels causing the blood to be under a higher pressure. Angiotensin II also causes aldosterone to be released into the blood which is a hormone that regulates the salt and water balance within the body. It causes sodium ions (salt) and water to be reabsorbed from the kidneys, which leads to an increase in blood pressure as more water is now in the blood, so more concentrated urine will be produced (You and Your Hormones 2015).Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) works in a similar way to aldosterone by producing more concentrated urine and increasing blood pressure as more water is kept in the blood. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland (both are located in the brain) when the body is dehydrated or when lots of blood has been lost. The hormone causes vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) which leads to an increase in blood pressure. ADH also causes water to move from the collecting duct of the kidney into the blood therefore producing more concentrated urine and a higher blood pressure as more water is in the blood (Tortora and Derrickson 2009).Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Adrenaline and noradrenaline are both hormones and are released from the medulla of the adrenal glands during times of stress. When adrenaline and noradrenaline are released into the blood stream they cause an increase in heart rate and force of contractions. The hormones also cause blood vessels in the skin and abdominal organs (such as the stomach and kidney) to narrow (vasoconstriction) which leads to an increase in blood pressure. Adrenaline can also cause blood vessels to widen (vasodilation) to increase the flow of blood to muscles during exercise, this helps to decrease blood pressure during exercise.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is released by cells in the atria of the heart. ANP causes blood vessels to widen (vasodilation) therefore lowering the blood pressure as the blood has a larger space to travel around the body. The hormone also increases the loss of water and salt, therefore producing more dilute urine, which reduces the amount of water in the blood, also helping to lower blood pressure (Tortora and Derrickson 2009).Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The pressure depends on the work being done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.

Hypertension and heart disease are global health concerns. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the growth of the processed food industry has impacted the amount of salt in diets worldwide, and that this plays a role in hypertension.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Fast facts on hypertension:
Here are some key points about hypertension. More detail is in the main article.
Normal blood pressure is 120 over 80 mm of mercury (mmHg), but hypertension is higher than 130 over 80 mmHg.
Acute causes of high blood pressure include stress, but it can happen on its own, or it can result from an underlying condition, such as kidney disease.
Unmanaged hypertension can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems.
Lifestyle factors are the best way to address high blood pressure.
What is hypertension?
Regular health checks are the best way to monitor your blood pressure.
Regular health checks are the best way to monitor your blood pressure.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure.

This means that the blood applies too much force against the walls of the blood vessels.

Around 85 million people in the United States have high blood pressure.

Medical guidelines define hypertension as a blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Treatment
While blood pressure is best regulated through the diet before it reaches the stage of hypertension, there is a range of treatment options.

Lifestyle adjustments are the standard first-line treatment for hypertension.

Regular physical exercise

Current guidelines recommend that each week, people with hypertension engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic intensity exercise or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity exercise.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

People should exercise on at least 5 days of the week. Examples of activities include walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming.

Stress reduction

Avoiding stress, or developing strategies for managing unavoidable stress, can help with blood pressure control.

Using alcohol, drugs, smoking, and unhealthy eating to cope with stress will add to hypertensive problems. These should be avoided.

Smoking can raise blood pressure. Giving up smoking reduces the risk of hypertension, heart conditions, and other health issues.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Medications
People with blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 may use medication to treat hypertension.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Drugs are usually started one at a time at a low dose. Side effects associated with antihypertensive drugs are usually minor.

Eventually, a combination of at least two antihypertensive drugs is usually required.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

A range of drug types are available to help lower blood pressure, including:

diuretics, including thiazides, chlorthalidone, and indapamide
beta-blockers and alpha-blockers
calcium-channel blockers
central agonists
peripheral adrenergic inhibitor
vasodilators
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
angiotensin receptor blockers
The choice of drug depends on the individual and any other conditions they may have.

Anyone taking antihypertensive medications should be sure to carefully read labels, especially before taking any over-the-counter (OTC) medications, such as decongestants.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

These may interact with medications used to lower blood pressure.

Causes
The cause of hypertension is often not known.

Around 1 in every 20 cases of hypertension is the effect of an underlying condition or medication.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of high blood pressure because the kidneys do not filter out fluid. This fluid excess leads to hypertension.

Risk factors
A number of risk factors increase the chances of having hypertension.

Age: Hypertension is more common in people aged over 60 years. With age, blood pressure can increase steadily as the arteries become stiffer and narrower due to plaque build-up.
Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups are more prone to hypertension.
Size and weight: Being overweight or obese is a key risk factor.
Alcohol and tobacco use: Consuming large amounts of alcohol regularly can increase a person’s blood pressure, as can smoking tobacco.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Sex: The lifetime risk is the same for males and females, but men are more prone to hypertension at a younger age. The prevalence tends to be higher in older women.
Existing health conditions: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can lead to hypertension, especially as people get older.
Other contributing factors include:

physical inactivity
a salt-rich diet associated with processed and fatty foods
low potassium in the diet
alcohol and tobacco use
certain diseases and medications
A family history of high blood pressure and poorly managed stress can also contribute.

Below is a 3-D model of hypertension, which is fully interactive.

Explore the model using your mouse pad or touchscreen to understand more about hypertension.

Signs
Blood pressure can be measured by a sphygmomanometer, or blood pressure monitor.

Having high blood pressure for a short time can be a normal response to many situations. Acute stress and intense exercise, for example, can briefly elevate blood pressure in a healthy person.

For this reason, a diagnosis of hypertension normally requires several readings that show high blood pressure over time.

The systolic reading of 130 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart pumps blood around the body. The diastolic reading of 80 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart relaxes and refills with blood.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

The AHA 2017 guidelines define the following ranges of blood pressure:

Systolic (mmHg)

Diastolic (mmHg)

Normal blood pressure

Less than 120

Less than 80

Elevated

Between 120 and 129

Less than 80

Stage 1 hypertension

Between 130 and 139

Between 80 and 89

Stage 2 hypertension

At least 140

At least 90

Hypertensive crisis

Over 180

Over 120

If the reading shows a hypertensive crisis when taking blood pressure, wait 2 or 3 minutes and then repeat the test.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

If the reading is the same or higher, this is a medical emergency.

The person should seek immediate attention at the nearest hospital.

Symptoms
A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms, and it is often called the “silent killer.” While undetected, it can cause damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs, such as the kidneys.

Regularly checking your blood pressure is vital, as there will usually be no symptoms to make you aware of the condition.

It is maintained that high blood pressure causes sweating, anxiety, sleeping problems, and blushing. However, in most cases, there will be no symptoms at all.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

If blood pressure reaches the level of a hypertensive crisis, a person may experience headaches and nosebleeds.

Complications
Long-term hypertension can cause complications through atherosclerosis, where the formation of plaque results in the narrowing of blood vessels. This makes hypertension worse, as the heart must pump harder to deliver blood to the body.

High blood pressure raises the risk of a number of health problems, including a heart attack.
High blood pressure raises the risk of a number of health problems, including a heart attack.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.
Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can lead to:

heart failure and heart attacks
an aneurysm, or an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery that can burst, causing severe bleeding and, in some cases, death
kidney failure
stroke
amputation
hypertensive retinopathies in the eye, which can lead to blindness
Regular blood pressure testing can help people avoid the more severe complications.

Diet
Some types of hypertension can be managed through lifestyle and dietary choices, such as engaging in physical activity, reducing alcohol and tobacco use, and avoiding a high-sodium diet.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Reducing the amount of salt

Average salt intake is between 9 grams (g) and 12 g per day in most countries around the world.

The WHO recommends reducing intake to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems.

This can benefit people both with and without hypertension, but those with high blood pressure will benefit the most.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Moderating alcohol consumption

Moderate to excessive alcohol consumption is linked to raised blood pressure and an increased risk of stroke.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend a maximum of two drinks a day for men, and one for women.

The following would count as one drink:

12 ounce (oz.) bottle of beer
4 oz. of wine
1.5 oz. of 80-proof spirits
1 oz. of 100-proof spirits
A healthcare provider can help people who find it difficult to cut back.

Eating more fruit and vegetables and less fat

People who have or who are at risk of high blood pressure are advised to eat as little saturated and total fat as possible.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Recommended instead are:

whole-grain, high-fiber foods
a variety of fruit and vegetables
beans, pulses, and nuts
omega-3-rich fish twice a week
non-tropical vegetable oils, for example, olive oil
skinless poultry and fish
low-fat dairy products
It is important to avoid trans-fats, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats, and to eat portions of moderate size.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Managing body weight

Hypertension is closely related to excess body weight, and weight reduction is normally followed by a fall in blood pressure. A healthy, balanced diet with a calorie intake that matches the individual’s size, sex, and activity level will help.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

The DASH diet
The U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommends the DASH diet for people with high blood pressure. DASH, or “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,” has been specially designed to help people lower their blood pressure.

It is a flexible and balanced eating plan based on research studies sponsored by the Institute, which says that the diet:

lowers high blood pressure
improves levels of fats in the bloodstream
reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease
There is a cookbook written by the NHLBI called Keep the Beat Recipes with cooking ideas to help achieve these results.

Some evidence suggests that using probiotic supplements for 8 weeks or more may benefit people with hypertension.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Types
High blood pressure that is not caused by another condition or disease is called primary or essential hypertension. If it occurs as a result of another condition, it is called secondary hypertension.

Primary hypertension can result from multiple factors, including blood plasma volume and activity of the hormones that regulate of blood volume and pressure. It is also influenced by environmental factors, such as stress and lack of exercise.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Secondary hypertension has specific causes and is a complication of another problem.

It can result from:

diabetes, due to both kidney problems and nerve damage
kidney disease
pheochromocytoma, a rare cancer of an adrenal gland
Cushing syndrome, which can be caused by corticosteroid drugs
congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of the cortisol-secreting adrenal glands
hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism, which affects calcium and phosphorous levels
pregnancy
sleep apnea
obesity
CKD
Treating the underlying condition should see an improvement in blood pressure.

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When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Video – Your guide to blood pressure

How you can tell if you have high blood pressure
Having high blood pressure (hypertension) is not usually something that you feel or notice. It does not tend to produce obvious signs or symptoms. The only way to know what your blood pressure is, is to have it measured.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

Blood pressure is measured in ‘millimetres of mercury’ (mmHg) and is written as two numbers. For example, if your reading is 120/80mmHg, your blood pressure is ‘120 over 80’.

What do the numbers mean?
Every blood pressure reading consists of two numbers or levels. They are shown as one number on top of the other.

The first (or top) number is your systolic blood pressure. It is the highest level your blood pressure reaches when your heart beats.

The second (or bottom) number is your diastolic blood pressure. It is the lowest level your blood pressure reaches as your heart relaxes between beats.

Blood pressure readings explained

Keep your blood pressure low
Even if you do not have high blood pressure at the moment, it is important to keep your blood pressure as low as you can. The higher your blood pressure, the higher your risk of health problems.

For example, a blood pressure of 135 over 85 may be “normal” but someone with this reading is twice as likely to have a heart attack or stroke as someone with a reading of 115 over 75.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

More on blood pressure
What is a normal blood pressure reading?
What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
What is low blood pressure (hypotension)?
What high blood pressure can do
How lifestyle changes can lower your blood pressure
High blood pressure medicines
Using a home blood pressure monitor
DVD guide to blood pressure

High Blood Pressure is major health problem affecting the lives of many people. Most people are not aware of the many causes or solutions of high blood pressure. Causes can range from high sodium diets to high amounts of stress. In modern society, many people live a fast paced lifestyle, which puts them in a position to be more exposed to fast foods loaded with large quantities of sodium and stressful situations within their careers. Having high blood pressure means that there is a strong force of blood pushing against the artery walls throughout the circulation of the body. Blood pressure usually fluctuates from high to low depending on the situation.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers. However, if it stays high consistently it will cause severe health problems (Johnson, L. …show more content…
Blood pressure is defined as the force exerted by the blood on the wall of a blood vessel. Due to many causes, when the force exerted is consistently high, it is called high blood pressure, also known as hypertension (Hendry. et. al. 2012). Blood pressure is measured in two ways, systolic and diastolic. Systolic is the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart beats. Diastolic represents the pressure in vessels when the heart rests between beats.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers. To be considered high blood pressure, the systolic level has to be 140 and the diastolic level has to be 90. Both of these are represented by numbers and written systolic over diastolic, for example 120/80 (Johnson, L. 2014). Knowing that blood pressure can be measured can help many people learn whether or not they have high blood pressure. After understanding what blood pressure is and how it is measured, the next step would be to determine how it is classified in a medical perspective. There is a debate arguing on whether to identify high blood pressure as a disease or a risk factor.Blood Pressure Essay Assignment Papers.

 

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