Case Study: Descriptive Epidemiology.
Case Study: Descriptive Epidemiology.
If you read the “Health” page (either paper or web-based) of any major news source (e.g., The New York Times, CNN), reports of the occurrence of health outcomes are common headlines. For example, you may see the following or similar headlines:
“Breast Cancer Increasing in Asian-American Women”
“Teenage Smoking at an All-Time Low”
Have you ever wondered where this information comes from and what it really means?
Governmental agencies and other organizations routinely collect descriptive epidemiological statistics on many health outcomes. For example, statistics on the occurrence of cancer in the United States have been continuously collected since the early 1970s through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute.
For this Case Study Assignment, you will analyze and interpret descriptive epidemiologic statistics. To prepare for this Assignment, review the material presented in the textbook.
A case study worksheet will be provided by your instructor for this Assignment in the form of a Microsoft Word document. Download the worksheet and type your answers directly into the document to complete the Assignment. Be sure that your completed worksheet contains your responses to all questions.
Prior to submitting your Descriptive Epidemiology Case Study, review the Module 2 Case Study Assignment Rubric.
Module 2 Assignment: Descriptive Epidemiology Case Study
To complete the assignment, access the following resource:
Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Miller D, Bishop K, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2014, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2014/, based on November 2016 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2017.
Find the link labeled “Browse the Tables and Figures” and click on it. You should now be at a webpage titled, “Browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2014.” Now, find the information in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review to answer the following questions:
Note: All questions are worth 1 point unless otherwise marked.
Hint: Don’t forget to label your answers (for example, when reporting incidence rates the answer should not just be a number, but a number with a label — not 12.68, but instead, 12.68 cases per 100,000 persons per year). Points will be deducted for missing labels.
Overview (Select “Overview” from the Section drop-down menu)
1) What was the total percent change in U.S. Mortality for females from lung and bronchus cancer between 1950-2014? (Table 1.4)
2) What was the median age at death for men with prostate cancer between 2010-2014? (Table 1.14)
Annual Incidence Rates (Select the specific cancer site from the Section drop-down menu and then the appropriate table – don’t forget to click ‘submit’)
3) Find the 2014 annual incidence rates for pancreatic cancer.
a. What was the 2014 annual incidence rate for all races, both sexes?
b. What was the 2014 annual incidence rate for males?
c. What was the 2014 annual incidence rate for females?
d. Describe each of these sex-specific rates for males and females in words by putting these data into a sentence (don’t forget the denominators!). Then, discuss how these two rates compare to each other (for example, which rate is higher? By how much?)
4) Find the 1975-2014 annual incidence rates for brain and other nervous system cancers.
a. What was the 1975-2014 annual incidence rate for males of all races?
b. What was the 1975-2014 annual incidence rate for white males?__
c. What was the 1975-2014 annual incidence rate for black males?
d. Describe each of these race-specific rates for white males and black males in words by putting these data into a sentence (don’t forget the denominators!). Then, discuss how these two rates compare to each other (for example, which rate is higher? By how much?)
5) Which geographic areas provided data for the calculation of these rates? (3 points)
6) The rates in this table are age-adjusted, which means that the differences in rates seen between the populations are not due to age. Why is it important to adjust for the effects of age, particularly for cancer incidence and mortality? (5 points)
5-Year Relative and Period Survival (Select the specific cancer site from the Section drop-down menu and then the appropriate table)
7) Find the 5-Year relative survival (%) for 2007-2013 by age at diagnosis for mesothelioma (both sexes, all races).
a. What was the 5-year relative survival for:
i. Age <45? ___________
ii. Age 45-54?__________
iii. Age 55-64?__________
iv. Age 65-74?__________
v. Age 75+?____________
b. Describe in words these differences in 5-year relative survival by age at diagnosis:
c. Now look at these same age-specific statistics for males and females. Describe the similarities or differences you see in the 5-year relative survival by age. (4 points)
d. Is the information in the table enough by itself to draw conclusions as to why these sex-specific statistics are similar or different? Why or why not? (4 points; explanation needed for full credit)
Age-Adjusted Cancer Death Rates by State (Select the specific cancer site from the Section drop-down menu and then the appropriate table)
8) Find the age-adjusted cancer death rates by state for esophageal cancer (both sexes):
a. Which state has the highest age-adjusted death rate from esophageal cancer?
b. Which state has the lowest age-adjusted death rate from esophageal cancer?
9) Scroll down to the map of the United States showing the state-specific cancer death rates from esophageal cancer.
a. In which regions of the United States are the states with the highest cancer death rates generally located?
b. In which regions of the United States are the states with the lowest cancer death rates generally located?
10) Based on the information provided by this map, how would you geographically target public health strategies to reduce the esophageal cancer death rate? What epidemiological evidence does the map provide that is useful? What information does it not provide? Note: Do not just name general prevention strategies. Instead, use the information on the map to inform your answer. Be sure to answer all three questions above. (5 points)