Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies

Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

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Towards the end of the last century, health improvement strategies (such as the World Health Organization’s seminal Health for all by the year 2000) tended to use phrases like ‘protecting and promoting health’. In more recent years, the vocabulary has broadened out to place an emphasis on wellbeing as well as health. Today the phrase ‘population health’ is used to convey a way of conceiving health that is wider still. It includes the whole range of determinants of health and wellbeing – many of which, such as town planning or education, are quite separate from health services.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Referring to ‘population health’ rather than the more traditional phrase ‘public health’ also helps avoid any perception that this is only the responsibility of public health professionals. Population health is about creating a collective sense of responsibility across many organisations and individuals, in addition to public health specialists.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Confusingly, the phrase ‘population health management’ is also widely used, with a specific meaning that is narrower in focus than population health. Population health management refers to ways of bringing together health-related data to identify a specific population that health services may then prioritise. For example, data may be used to identify groups of people who are frequent users of accident and emergency departments. This way of using data is also sometimes called ‘population segmentation’.

Throughout all these changes in vocabulary, one element has consistently been essential: an emphasis on reducing inequalities in health, as well as improving health overall. This continues to be important in population health.

There are several definitions of population health in use. The King’s Fund defines it as:

An approach aimed at improving the health of an entire population. It is about improving the physical and mental health outcomes and wellbeing of people within and across a defined local, regional or national population, while reducing health inequalities. It includes action to reduce the occurrence of ill health, action to deliver appropriate health and care services and action on the wider determinants of health. It requires working with communities and partner agencies.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.
A vision for population health, page 18
What is involved in improving population health?
Our health is shaped by a range of factors, as set out in Figure 1. It is hard to be precise about how much each of these factors contributes to our health, but the evidence is convincing that the wider determinants of health in the outer ring have the most impact, followed by our lifestyles and health behaviours, and then the health and care system. There is also now greater recognition of the importance of the communities we live and work in, and the social networks we belong to.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Figure 1 – What affects our health?

Figure 1: social determinants of health
Dahlgren G, Whitehead M (1993). Tackling inequalities in health: what can we learn from what has been tried? Working paper prepared for The King’s Fund International Seminar on Tackling Inequalities in Health, September 1993, Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire. London, The King’s Fund, accessible in: Dahlgren G, Whitehead M. (2007) European strategies for tackling social inequities in health: Levelling up Part 2. Copenhagen: WHO Regional office for Europe: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/103824/E89384.pdf
The King’s Fund definition of population health leads to a focus on actions in four broad areas, illustrated in Figure 2. These are the four pillars of population health.

Figure 2 – Four pillars of population health

Four pillars of population health
Improving population health requires action on all four of the pillars and, crucially, the interfaces and overlaps between them.

Understanding the interfaces and overlaps between the pillars is essential. For example, housing is well-known to have a powerful impact on health. Healthy New Towns are an example of how an understanding of the overlap between housing, lifestyles and behaviours can lead to housing developments that are designed to encourage physical activity, healthy eating and social interaction. Similarly, sugary drinks have been associated with childhood obesity. Understanding how lifestyle choices – in this case, the choice of drinks – overlap with wider determinants of health – in this case, the affordability of less sugary drinks – helped the government design a soft drinks industry levy (often referred to as a ‘sugar tax’) which has led to a reduction in the sugar content of many soft drinks.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The King’s Fund describes this way of thinking about population health as a ‘population health system’ in which the four pillars are inter-connected and action is co-ordinated across them rather than within each in isolation. This is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3 – A population health system

Figure 2: a population health system
How should progress be made on population health?
The first step is to recognise that improving population health is an urgent priority. Over the last 100 years we have grown used to people living for longer and longer, but in recent years life expectancy has stopped increasing in England and in some areas has been reducing. Health inequalities are widening and England lags behind comparable nations of many key measures of health outcomes. Demand on NHS services has been increasing, but much of that extra demand is for treatment of conditions which are preventable. At heart, the NHS remains a treatment service for people when they become ill.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Importantly, action needs to be taken at three levels:

national – eg, government, arm’s length bodies, membership organisations
regional – eg, devolution areas, sustainability and transformation partnerships, integrated care systems
local – eg, individual cities, towns and neighbourhoods.
What needs to happen at the national level to improve population health?
In addition to The King’s Fund’s A vision for population health, national bodies in England have started to signal a will to prioritise population health. Notably:

the Department of Health and Social Care has issued a new strategy Prevention is better than cure which identifies population health as a priority. It includes a commitment for a Green Paper (consultation document) on the specific steps which the government will take to translate that priority into action.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.
NHS England has been increasingly vocal in its aim of reducing health inequalities, and has identified prevention as one of the key themes in the long-term plan for the NHS. The plan includes a welcome emphasis on population health which will be a key focus for integrated care systems as they are rolled out across the country.
National leadership for population health is essential but it needs to be co-ordinated across government. There are different options for how to do so. The last Labour government’s policies set targets for reducing health inequalities which went across government, with accountability through a cabinet sub-committee. The Welsh government has set statutory targets for improving population health, which go beyond the health sector and include requirements for translating them to the local level and for monitoring. The same legislation also set a requirement for health impact assessment of all policies.

At the moment, efforts to improve population health lack a common set of high-level goals and robust accountability for improvement. Although progress is being made in many local areas, responsibility for this is fragmented and unclear, rather than joined up as a concerted, nationwide approach. Improving accountability for contributing to national, high level goals is a priority. The King’s Fund has highlighted the potentially important role that Public Health England could have in monitoring and reporting on progress across the health and care system and beyond, if its role were more than only advisory.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

At present, funding is skewed towards health services providing treatment, such as hospitals. There is good evidence that investment in prevention is cost-effective, but the benefits of that investment may not be realised until several years later and, in the meantime, hospitals need the funding now in order to meet people’s immediate needs. Breaking out of this cycle is fundamental to making progress. One of the challenges for national leaders is to lead a debate about how best to re-balance spending across the four pillars of population health.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

What needs to happen at a regional level to improve population health?
Devolution areas and regional plans made by sustainability and transformation partnerships (STPs) or integrated care systems (ICSs) – which often include several local authorities and clinical commissioning groups – have great potential to improve population health.

Greater Manchester, for example, has a population health plan which is fully integrated into broader plans for economic development and growth and for public service reform. It is rooted in a set of principles and values which reflect the overall approach to devolution, and it sets out ambitious plans and programmes.

STPs and ICSs are using 2019/20 as a ‘foundation year’ to build up system-wide implementation plans for first five years of the NHS long-term plan, presenting a key opportunity to strengthen their focus on population health:Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Every ICS will need streamlined commissioning arrangements to enable a single set of commissioning decisions at system level. This will typically involve a single CCG for each ICS area. CCGs will become leaner, more strategic organisations that support providers to partner with local government and other community organisations on population health, service redesign and long-term plan implementation.
The NHS long-term plan, page 29
It is implicit within this that although ICSs are being established through the NHS long-term plan, if they are to have impact on population health, they must not behave as just NHS bodies. At the regional level, a priority is to build on the cross-sector partnership approach that many STPs have started to establish.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

What does a population health approach look like at a local level?
There is no single blueprint for a local population health approach: each place will need to work out what approach and – importantly – what arrangements for leadership and accountability will work best for their context. The four pillars of population health provide a framework that can be used for reviewing achievements and gaps, to inform the development of local plans and approaches.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The examples below show the different approaches taken by different local areas.

Bristol is developing its approach to population health by building on an existing commitment to be a ‘Marmot city’, adopting the approaches advocated by Professor Sir Michael Marmot for improving health and reducing health inequality. The Marmot city infrastructure is the basis for creating partnerships between city planning and development, public health, the local NHS, the local university, the police and others.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.
Devon is using its STP as the framework for improving population health. For example, NHS commissioners and local authorities have jointly established wellbeing hubs.
The County Durham Partnership positions the health and wellbeing board as the vehicle for improving population health by bringing together economic development, services for children and families, health improvement, community safety and the environment. There is notable engagement of councillors and NHS chief executives.
Cherwell District Council is leading the Bicester Healthy New Town Initiative – a new development of 13,000 homes within the Bicester area – to bring together 20 partner organisations to ensure that the development actively promotes and improves residents’ health.
Local politicians – councillors and mayors – have an essential role in bringing different organisations and departments together to work as effective partnerships, and in ensuring a focus on what the local community needs rather than a narrow view of organisational accountability. The King’s Fund’s report on the role of cities in improving population health describes this in more detail. Involving local people and using their insight to draw up plans for improving health are key to population health approaches. The Surrey Heartlands Health and Care Partnership demonstrates a range of methods for engaging people at scale including a citizen’s panel, monthly online surveys, citizen ambassadors and rigorous use of focus groups and deliberative research methods.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Conclusion
Right now, a number of policy developments are causing population health to have an increasingly high profile. Some of these – such as the NHS long-term plan – are specific to the NHS, although population health is about far more than just NHS services. It is clear that a significant groundswell is building up, creating opportunities for progress.

Various secretaries of state for health have prioritised prevention when they first assumed office, only for that initial enthusiasm to evaporate over time. There is also a history of short-term thinking, resulting in prevention budgets being among the first to be cut at times of financial pressure. The key issue now is to ensure that the various commitments that have been made to improving population health go beyond rhetoric, to sustained effort at national, regional and local levels.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

5095. Prespecialty Clinical Directed Study [Formerly NURS 262] This clinical course is designed to facilitate prespecialty student maintenance of clinical competencies in the event the student is unable to progress as planned in the clinical course curriculum of the prespecialty level. Students enrolled in this course will complete independent review of prior clinical and non-clinical course content, supervised laboratory practice, and facilitated clinical experience as directed by the faculty to demonstrate maintenance of clinical competency at the level of the last successfully completed prespecialty course. Prerequisite: Successful completion of at least one prespecialty clinical course. [1]
5101. Legal and Ethical Accountability in Professional Nursing Practice [Formerly NURS 215] This course provides an opportunity for the student to explore current legal and ethical issues in health care. Students will gain understanding of legal and ethical concepts, applying them in identification and analysis of complex scenarios affecting professional nursing practice. Legal principles, nursing liability, ethical theories, and decision-making are discussed as foundational concepts for professional nursing practice. Corequisites: 5103, 5105, 5106, 5115. [2] Fall
5103. Human Experience of Health and Illness Across the Lifespan I [Formerly NURS 235] Nursing 5103 is the first of three didactic courses examining the human experience of health and illness across the lifespan from infancy through senescence. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The framework incorporates the following concepts and their influence on health and response to illness: growth and development, mental health, gender, lifestyle, value systems, spirituality, ethnicity, environment, and psychosocial, economic, and cultural issues. The impact of these factors on individuals, families, and aggregates will be explored. Basic concepts/knowledge of selected interventions will be introduced. Selected health problems involving the sensory, hematological, endocrine, renal/urinary, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems will be presented; the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medical management (select pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and surgical), and nursing management will be addressed. Health promotion, including primary, secondary, and tertiary, anticipatory guidance, and patient education will be discussed. Corequisite: 5101, 5105, 5106, 5115. [4] Fall
5105. Enhancement of Community and Population Health I [Formerly NURS 225] This course is the first in a sequence of three clinical practice courses designed to provide the student with an opportunity to explore population and community-based health care principles that impact the client.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Healthy People 2020 will be used as a framework to determine the health status of the community. Notably, the course will provide the student knowledge on how the social determinants of health impact the health of the community. In addition, resources will be discussed in relation to the availability, barriers,and access in the community. The community clinical experience is designed to provide the student the opportunity to work within a community organization or agency to assess and identify specific challenges to maximizing the health of persons in communities and populations. Corequisite: 5101, 5103, 5106, 5115. [3] Fall
5106. Pharmacology for Nursing Care I [Formerly NURS 255A] This course presents an introduction to pharmacologic knowledge, the clinical indications for drug use as a treatment modality, and the role of the nurse in drug therapy.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course will present content on the prototype drug from major drug classifications that serves as a framework for continued self-study of new drug information. Emphasis will be placed on major drug classifications and their respective prototype drug(s) that are more commonly encountered in drug therapy. Corequisite: 5101, 5103, 5105, 5115. [2] Fall
5115. Fundamentals of Clinical Practice [Formerly NURS 245] This course is the first in a sequence of three clinical practice courses. The course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to apply the nursing process (assessment, analysis, planning, intervention, and evaluation) in the delivery of client-centered nursing care. Students will learn and practice assessment and intervention skills in a didactic classroom setting and in a simulated laboratory setting and progress to full application of the nursing process in an adult medical/surgical clinical setting with maximum faculty guidance. Corequisite: 5101, 5103, 5105, 5106. [5] Fall
5201. Inquiry and Evidence in Professional Nursing Practice [Formerly NURS 216] This course provides an introduction to nursing research and the evidence based practice process. Special emphasis is placed on integration of nursing science with clinical judgment and patient preferences for care. Students gain knowledge of the contributions of qualitative and quantitative research to clinical practice.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Knowledge development and the interrelationships among theory, practice and research are discussed. The nurse’s role as advocate for human subjects in research is presented. Students identify clinical problems, search scholarly literature for information related to those problems, and critically appraise the scholarly information for application to clinical practice. The course culminates with the presentation of an evidence based nursing project addressing a selected clinical problem for the purpose of improving patient outcomes. Prerequisites: 5101, 5102, 5103, 5105, 5106, 5115; corequisites: 5203, 5205, 5206, 5215. [2] Spring
5203. Human Experience of Health and Illness Across the Lifespan II [Formerly NURS 236] Nursing 5203 is the second of three didactic courses examining the human experience of health and illness across the lifespan from infancy through senescence, including the childbearing cycle.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The framework incorporates the following concepts and their influence on health and response to illness: growth and development, mental health, gender, lifestyle, value systems, spirituality, ethnicity, environment, and psychosocial, economic, and cultural issues. The impact of these factors on individuals, families, and aggregates will be explored. Basic concepts/knowledge of selected interventions will be introduced. Selected health problems involving mental health disorders with appropriate treatment modalities and settings, gastrointestinal, reproductive (including maternity focus) systems, and care of the client with cancer will be presented. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, medical management (non-pharmacologic, and surgical), and nursing management will be addressed. Health promotion, including primary, secondary, and tertiary, anticipatory guidance, and patient education will be discussed. Prerequisite: 5101, 5102, 5105, 5103, 5115, 5106. Corequisite: 5201, 5205, 5215, 5206. [5] Spring
5205. Enhancement of Community and Population Health II [Formerly NURS 226] This course is the second in a sequence of three clinical practice courses designed to provide the student with an opportunity to explore population and community based health care principles that impact the client.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course will provide the student with an opportunity to use evidence-based practice to enhance the knowledge base regarding factors that impact the client’s health status within the community and population. This course will focus on how evidence-based practice may be used to increase healthy lifespans, decrease discrepancies in health status and improve health outcomes. The course explores population-based care models and environments in which health care is delivered: community agencies, clinics, neighborhoods/communities, schools, the family, and the workplace. Prerequisite: 5101, 5102, 5105, 5103, 5115, 5106. Corequisite: 5201, 5203, 5215, 5206. [3] Spring
5206. Pharmacology for Nursing Care II [Formerly NURS 255B] This course extends and builds upon pharmacological knowledge from earlier pharmacology courses and the Health and Illness Across the Lifespan series. The focus of the course is drug therapy most commonly seen in specific clinical settings and specific patient situations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course presents a context for safe drug administration and for continued self-study of new drug information. Emphasis is placed on pharmacological interventions to achieve safe and optimal patient outcomes. Prerequisite: 5101, 5102, 5105, 5103, 5115, 5106. Corequisite: 5201, 5205, 5203, 5215. [2] Spring
5215. Integration of Theoretical and Clinical Aspects of Nursing I [Formerly NURS 246] This course is the second of a sequence of three clinical practice courses. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. It is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to integrate theory, practice, and evidence in the application of the nursing process in a clinical setting for diverse client aggregate populations across the lifespan (child-bearing families/newborn health, pediatric and adolescent health, adult and older adult health, and psychiatric/mental health). Students will analyze and integrate aggregate specific concepts in the provision of client-centered care in a variety of health care settings with moderate faculty guidance. Prerequisite: 5101, 5102, 5105, 5103, 5115, 5106. Corequisite: 5201, 5205, 5203, 5206. [3] Spring
5301. Leadership and Management in Professional Nursing Practice [Formerly NURS 217] This course provides an introduction to leadership and management in nursing. Course content focuses on leadership and decision-making theories, power and influence, team building, communication, and problem solving skills. The course is designed to facilitate transition to practice and management of professional issues that reflect the current complexity in provision of care with respect to patient, organizational, and professional advocacy. Quality improvement and management skills will be emphasized including delegation and assignment, managed care, outcomes management, resource allocation, conflict resolution, and economic principles pertinent to the efficient and effective delivery of health care services. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201; corequisite: 5303, 5305, 5306, 5315, 5325. [2] Summer
5303. Human Experience of Health and Illness Across the Lifespan III [Formerly NURS 237] This is the third of three didactic courses examining the human experience of health and illness across the lifespan – from infancy through senescence – with an emphasis on increasing complex acute and chronic issues. The course provides the student with the theoretical basis to apply principles of chronic illness, including assessment and intervention skills, to at-risk populations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The impact of multi-system factors on individuals, families, and aggregates or populations/communities will be explored. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, medical management (pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and surgical), and nursing management for selected health problems will be addressed. Health promotion, anticipatory guidance, and patient education will be discussed. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201, 5102, 5105, 5205, 5103, 5203, 5115, 5215, 5106, 5206. Corequisite: 5301, 5305, 5315, 5325, 5306. [Prerequisites and corequisites apply to non-R.N. students only.] [4] Fall, Summer
5305. Enhancement of Community and Population Health III [Formerly NURS 227] This course is the third in a sequence of three clinical practice courses designed to provide the student with an opportunity to explore population and community-based health care principles that impact the client. This course addresses healthcare systems related issues that impact the client’s ability to maintain and maximize health.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will have the opportunity to build on their knowledge of clients within communities and populations, collaborate to synthesize and evaluate data, identify appropriate programs, and disseminate findings. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201, 5102, 5105, 5205, 5103, 5203, 5115, 5215, 5106, 5206. Corequisite: 5301, 5303, 5315, 5325, 5306. [2] Summer
5306. Pharmacology for Nursing Care III [Formerly NURS 256] This course presents pharmacologic knowledge, the clinical indications for medication use as a treatment modality, and the role of the nurse in medication therapy. Emphasis is placed on the variations of pharmacologic therapy in critical and complex situations with the goal of achieving safe and optimal client outcomes in specific situations.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Major medication classifications and commonly encountered prototype(s) within specialty areas will serve as a framework for continued learning of new pharmacologic information. Additionally, this course engages students in group activities which require collaboration, negotiation, and rationalizations of decisions essential for client centered care.. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201, 5102, 5105, 5205, 5103, 5203, 5115, 5215, 5106, 5206. Corequisite: 5301, 5305, 5303, 5315, 5325. [1] Summer
5315. Integration of Theoretical and Clinical Aspects of Nursing II [Formerly NURS 247A] This course is the final rotation of the second in the sequence of three clinical practice courses. This course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to integrate theory, practice, and evidence in the application of the nursing process in a clinical setting for diverse client aggregate populations across the life span (child-bearing families/newborn health, pediatric and adolescent health, adult and older adult health, and psychiatric/mental health). Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will analyze and integrate aggregate specific concepts in the provision of client-centered care in variety of health care settings with moderate faculty guidance. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201, 5102, 5105, 5205, 5103, 5203, 5115, 5215, 5106, 5206. Corequisite: 5301, 5305, 5303, 5325, 5306. [1] Summer
5325. Capstone Clinical Practicum [Formerly NURS 247B] This course is the third in a sequence of three clinical practice courses. This course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to synthesize theory, practice, and evidence in the application of the nursing process for multiple complex adult medical-surgical clients. Students will synthesize acquired knowledge, skills, and attitudes to prevent illness and promote health, prioritize and delegate nursing care, and engage as leaders within the inter-professional health care team to meet the needs of clients on the continuum of health. Prerequisite: 5101, 5201, 5102, 5105, 5205, 5103, 5203, 5115, 5215, 5106, 5206. Corequisite: 5301, 5305, 5303, 5315, 5306. [2] Summer
5401. Critical Thinking, Supporting Evidence and Communication, Part 1 [Formerly NURS 218A] This course focuses on identification of the unique strengths/perceptions of each RN student and a development of an individualized plan for learning. The course assists RN students in identifying and developing strategies to foster critical thinking, lifelong learning, and nursing practice role development.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Theory development and research are introduced as processes essential to the organization and development of nursing knowledge. Limited to RN students. [3] Fall
5402. Epidemiology and Population-Based Nursing [Formerly NURS 228] This course provides the student with an opportunity to explore population-based health care principles of prevention, health maintenance and health promotion within the context of Healthy People 2010. Notably, the course will focus on how these principles are used to increase healthy lifespan, decrease discrepancies in health status and health outcomes for different populations and assure access to preventive services for all. It emphasizes epidemiologic principles and population-based holistic health promotion/disease prevention as an integral part of populations at risk for illness, disability, or premature death. Further, the course explores population-based care models and environments in which health care is delivered: community agencies, neighborhoods/communities, schools, the family, and the workplace. Legislation and policy implications for primary, secondary, and tertiary care will be discussed. [3] Fall
5403. Health Care Systems and the Role of the Nurse as Facilitator of Learning [Formerly NURS 238] This course addresses health care systems and the role of the nurse as teacher and facilitator of learning in health care. Course content focuses on leadership concepts, decision-making, team building, communication, managerial skills, and integrates the foundational concepts of teaching and counseling patients and families.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course also provides information on contemporary trends in the organization and delivery of health care to individuals, families and populations to include quality improvement and legal/regulatory issues. In addition, course content will include the impact of managed care and financial pressures on health care providers along with outcomes management, financial management, conflict resolution and economic principles pertinent to the delivery of health care services.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course provides concepts related to change management and the teaching and learning processes. Corequisites: 5401, 5402, 5303. [3] Fall
5501. Critical Thinking, Supporting Evidence and Communication, Part 2 [Formerly NURS 218B] This course is the second of a two course sequence addressing critical thinking, research utilization, and communication. Students in this course will identify, evaluate, and engage the various steps of scholarly inquiry in order to address research problems related to professional nursing practice. Students also will explore the theoretical and research foundations for evidence-based practice in nursing. Prerequisite: 5401. [2] Spring
5502. Ethics in Nursing Practice [Formerly NURS 219] This didactic and seminar course addresses basic ethical principles and special problems/issues as sources for ethical reflection. Ethical dilemmas in health care are discussed using professional and analytical methods of investigation. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students are expected to reflect on their personal values and beliefs, ethical principles, clinical experiences, and literature sources while engaging in all assignments. Prerequisite: 5401. [2] Spring
5505. Health Assessment for the Registered Nurse [Formerly NURS 248] This course is designed to provide the RN student the opportunity to learn and practice the skills of assessment in a classroom, laboratory setting, and then in a clinical area for a variety of client populations across the life span. The student’s specialty population will be considered in the choice of health care setting utilized for practice. Prerequisite: 5303, 5402. Corequisite: 5506. [3] Spring
5506. Pharmacology for the Registered Nurse [Formerly NURS 259] This course extends and builds upon pharmacological knowledge from foundational pharmacology courses and pathophysiology courses. The focus of the course is the variations of drug therapy in complex situations. The course presents cases of complex drug regimens for analysis and evaluation by the student.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Emphasis will be placed on pharmacological interventions to achieve safe and optimal patient outcomes in specific situations. [3] Spring
5515. Providing Care at the Community Level [Formerly NURS 249] This course is an introduction to the scope and practice of family and community health nursing. It emphasizes, through didactic and community practice, the promotion and maintenance of the health of diverse populations across the lifespan. The epidemiological process and the nursing process serve as the organizing framework for didactic content and clinical interventions to support family and community health. Social, cultural, economic, environmental, and ethical issues related to specific populations will be explored. Limited to RN students. Prerequisite: 5402; or with permission of instructor. [3] Spring
5598. Independent Study – Non Clinical [Formerly NURS 251] Ind Study – Non Clinical [1-6]
5999. [Clinical Continuation] [Formerly NURS 3000] MSN, post-master’s certificate, or DNP students enroll in this course to resolve an incomplete grade in a prior semester’s clinical course. Enrollment in the course is considered to carry at least half-time status. Tuition is charged at a flat rate of $200. Students may enroll in this course no more than twice. Offered as needed. [0] Fall, Spring, Summer
Specialty Nursing Courses and Electives
6010. Advanced Pathophysiology [Formerly NURS 308] This is a graduate level, advanced pathophysiology course designed to meet the educational needs of those pursuing certification as advanced practice nurses.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course builds on pre-acquired knowledge of normal human anatomy and physiology. Classic and current research findings form the basis for analysis of pathophysiologic processes and their effect on individual and multiple body systems. Students analyze the effect and progression of selected disease entities in diverse populations across the lifespan. The course provides a foundation for clinical assessment, diagnosis and management of clients experiencing alterations or risks of alterations in their health status. Pre/corequisite: Courses in normal human anatomy and physiology. [3] Fall, Spring
6011L. Advanced Health Assessment Lab This course is the foundational physical exam and health assessment lab companion course for Advanced Health Assessment, N6011 for advanced nursing practice. Students differentiate abnormal from normal findings using advanced assessment techniques, interpret diagnostic study results and use clinical reasoning to formulate diagnoses for culturally diverse individuals.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students interpret data and problem-solve utilizing case studies and standardized patients. Prerequisite: Admission to specialty and graduate level standing. [1] Fall
6011. Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Reasoning [Formerly NURS 305A] This course is the foundational didactic course for advanced nursing practice. Students differentiate abnormal from normal findings using advanced assessment techniques, interpret diagnostic study results and use clinical reasoning to formulate diagnoses for culturally diverse individuals. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies are discussed. Prerequisite: Admission to specialty and graduate level standing. [2] Fall
6020. Advanced Pharmacotherapeutics [Formerly NURS 307] This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge of pharmacokinetics that will enable the student to safely and appropriately select pharmacologic agents for the management of common acute and chronic health problems of diverse populations. Specific content of the course covers representative drugs of a pharmacologic group, indications for use, drug selection, titration of dose, key adverse effects, and monitoring of therapy and alternative therapy. [3] Fall, Spring
6025. Continuous Quality Improvement and Outcomes Measures [Formerly NURS 383A] This course has two related foci: quality improvement models/methods and the measurement of client outcomes across a broad range of healthcare settings. Students learn the systematic methods of CQI, based on the work of Deming and others.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. These statistical and applied research methods are linked to the measurement of outcomes. The use of various outcome measurement instruments is explored. Prerequisite: Specialty level status and others by permission of course instructor. [2-3] Spring
6030. Advanced Practice Nursing in Primary Care of the Adult [Formerly NURS 309A] This course is designed to provide students with knowledge needed to assess and manage common acute and chronic health problems in the adult population. Multidimensional interventions are discussed (e.g., culturally and environmentally sensitive; health promoting). Pre/corequisite: 6101 or 6011. [3] Fall, Spring
6031. Advanced Practice Nursing in Primary Care of the Adolescent [Formerly NURS 309C] This didactic course presents knowledge that is necessary for the practice of primary health care nursing of adolescents. Course content includes the principles of health promotion, disease prevention and assessment, and management of common primary health care problems in diverse adolescent populations. Emphasis is placed on developmental needs and the pathophysiologic processes underlying certain conditions. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The impact of the family on the health of the adolescent is explored. Students are introduced to the dynamics of the managed care environment. Pre/corequisite: 6011 or 6101. [1] Fall, Summer
6032. Advanced Practice Nursing in the Primary Care of the Woman [Formerly NURS 309E] This didactic course presents the knowledge that is necessary for the practice of primary care of the female patient by advanced practice nurses. Course content includes the principles of health promotion, disease prevention and assessment, and the management of common primary health care problems in the female population. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Emphasis is placed on management of women’s health issues in a general, primary care setting. Pre/corequisite: 6011. [1] Spring
6034. Adult Gerontology Primary Care I [Formerly NURS 310A] This course is designed to provide students with knowledge needed to assess and manage common acute and chronic health problems in the adult population. Multidimensional interventions are discussed (e.g., culturally and environmentally sensitive, health promoting). Pre/corequisite: 6011. [3] Fall
6040. Introduction to Health Informatics [Formerly NURS 381A] Health informatics is the management and transformation of health data into information and knowledge to improve aspects of health outcomes such as cost, quality, safety, and/or satisfaction. This survey course focuses on information systems in clinical settings and the use of information for health systems management. The recent emphasis on the National Health Information Infrastructure at the Federal level will be used to frame the topics.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Examples include organizing information pertinent to individual patient care, analyzing data to determine clinical effectiveness, retrieving needed information or knowledge at the point of care, using data to improve management of health care enterprises, and assessing the health patterns of populations and aggregates. Pre/corequisite: Basic competency in using word processing, electronic mail, bibliographic or library retrieval systems, presentation graphics, spreadsheets, and databases. These skills are not taught in the course, but students may be required to apply them to carry out course assignments.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. [3] Fall
6041. Health Care Financial Management [Formerly NURS 385A] Students in this course apply accounting, economic principles, and financial management strategies to the management of health care resources in health care organizations. Students acquire a degree of proficiency at computerized spreadsheet utilization to enhance efficient financial analysis. [3] Fall
6045. Professional Formation 1: Roles and Contexts for Advanced Nursing Practice This course offers an introduction to the principles, concepts, and frameworks for advanced nursing practice. Students will integrate principles of evidence-based practice, quality and safety, leadership, ethics, policy, and role development. Students will identify the role of advanced nursing practice in the healthcare environment with emphasis on leadership in quality and safety as a part of interprofessional teams. [2] Fall
6055. Professional Formation 2: Application of Evidence in Healthcare Environments This course is the second in a series of courses facilitating Professional Formation in the Advanced Nursing Practice role.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will develop skills to evaluate and synthesize supporting evidence and examine ethical dilemmas of implementation, to develop and articulate innovative solutions. Students will learn how to assess clinical processes, identify advanced nursing practice problems, and determine how to address problems. Prerequisite: 6045. [3] Spring
6060. Conceptualization and Integration of Evidence for Advanced Nursing Practice [Formerly NURS 399B] This course provides the student with the opportunity to explore a relevant problem in advanced nursing practice. Concepts related to the selected problem are identified and critically appraised. Methodologies to generate evidence will be presented to examine knowledge related to the selected problem and make practice recommendations. This course builds upon prerequisite knowledge. Prerequisite: 6050. [3] Summer
6065. PF 3: Leading Collaborative Change: Improving Delivery of Healthcare to Patients and Populations This course is the third in a series building Professional Formation in an advanced nursing practice role.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will develop leadership skills for participation in interprofessional teams to address practice problems and improve care delivery. Students will plan evidence-based solutions that meet the six aims for healthcare quality from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Students will be prepared to advocate for policy change at the institutional, state, and federal level to improve the health of populations.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prequisite: 6055. [4] Summer
6070. APN Role Within the U.S. Healthcare Delivery System [Formerly NURS 395] This course provides students with an understanding of how the U.S. healthcare system works, including major components of both service delivery and financing of care. Students analyze and evaluate the healthcare delivery system, focusing on the role of the Advanced Practice Nurse within the system. The relationships between and among the various stakeholders, including consumers, providers, payers, regulatory agencies, and policy makers, are explored as well as their impact on healthcare delivery. The focus is on economic implications of health planning, organization of personnel and resources, design of payment systems, and cost effectiveness of healthcare delivery. [3] Fall, Summer
6075. Professional Formation 4: Transition to Advanced Nursing Practice This course facilitates professional formation through transition to the advanced nursing practice role. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will evaluate practice settings appropriate for their scope and navigate the employment search and hiring process. Students will also explore the credentialing/privileging process and will discuss strategies for continued professional development. [1] Summer
6080. Local Applications of Global Health This is a 1 credit hour elective course designed for graduate students interested in the local context of global health applications. This course will consist of weekly discussions led by interdisciplinary experts in global health, within and outside of VU. Topics will focus on interdisciplinary innovations that alleviate health disparities in diverse settings locally and abroad. Students will engage in learning through readings, attendance and participation in discussion and debates at weekly seminars and assignments. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course is designed for students interested in reciprocity in global health and caring for underserved populations locally and abroad, and builds on a diverse base of prerequisite knowledge in interdisciplinary fields pertaining to health, social justice, sustainable development, and working in interdisciplinary teams. [1] Spring
6084. Planetary Health, Policy and Social Justice This is a 3 credit hour elective course designed for students interested in exploring the intersections between primary care, planetary health and climate change (according to WHO, currently the greatest threat to global health), social justice and policy. The causes of climate change and the resulting primary, secondary and tertiary impacts on people and communities will be examined through the lens of global health and policy.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will work with local agencies to develop evidence-based and targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies as well as policy-based solutions, all incorporating science and engineering, political science and policy, law and economics as well as nursing and medicine to address healthspan disparities related to climate change and social vulnerability. [3] Spring
6085. Professional Formation 5: Role of the APN in Improving Delivery of Healthcare – Indiv. & Populations Students will identify the role of advanced nursing practice in the healthcare environment with emphasis on leadership in quality and safety as a part of interprofessional teams. Students will incorporate ethical principles in clinical scenarios and in the use of current and emerging technologies. Students will develop plans for system change to deliver high quality care to patients and populations. [2] Summer
6090. JOINT STUDIES MED SCHOOL
6091. LGBTI Health in Inter-professional Practice Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) Health in Inter-professional Practice is a course focusing on specific healthcare needs (from the perspective of many health-related professions) of people who identify as a sexual or gender minority. Guidance for self-exploration of biases, discomforts, strengths and talents that may impede or restore the provision of equitable healthcare delivery for LGBTI people will be provided.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Language, sexual development, disease prevention, health risks and legal and ethical issues related to gender identity and sexual orientation will be defined and explored within the context of different healthcare environments. Additionally, specific healthcare concerns for patients with disorders of sexual development (DSD) or intersex will be explored. Students will interact with inter-professional and -disciplinary team members while developing knowledge and skills to provide expert and equitable care for LGBTI people. Students will engage in learning through readings, synchronous and asynchronous discussions, written assignments and a discipline-specific project. Pre/corequisite: Admission to any graduate or professional degree program across the Vanderbilt campus. [2] Summer
6098. Independent Study, Non-Clinical [Formerly NURS 370] Content varies according to individual needs and interest. A contract is made between the student and the faculty sponsor, with copies for the student, the sponsor, the program director, and the student’s record. [Variable credit 1-6] Fall, Spring, Summer
6099. Independent Study: Clinical [Formerly NURS 371] A program of independent study in a selected area of nursing practice under the direction of a faculty sponsor.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. A contract is made between the student and the faculty sponsor, with copies for the student, the sponsor, the program director, and the student’s record. [Variable credit 1-6] Fall, Spring, Summer
6101. Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Reasoning [Formerly NURS 305F] Students differentiate abnormal from normal findings using advanced assessment techniques, interpret diagnostic study results, and use clinical reasoning to formulate diagnoses for culturally diverse adults and older adults. Students interpret data and problem solve utilizing case studies and surrogate patients. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies are discussed. Prerequisite: Admission to specialty and graduate level standing. [3] Fall
6102. Advanced Physiology and Pathophysiology [Formerly NURS 306A] This course provides in-depth discussion of complex physiologic and pathophysiologic concepts across the lifespan essential for advanced practice nursing of adult and geriatric patient populations in acute care settings. Physiology of each organ system is discussed from the cellular level to the function of organ systems. Emphasis is placed on integrating physiologic concepts to predict, evaluate, and manage pathologic processes.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prerequisite: Courses in undergraduate level human anatomy and physiology. [4] Fall
6103. Advanced Pharmacotherapeutics [Formerly NURS 307C] This course builds on knowledge of the basic principles of pharmacology to establish a knowledge base for clinical judgments in the pharmacologic management and evaluation of adults and older adults as related to the role of Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioners. Drug interactions, incompatibilities, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. Appropriate patient education is integrated. Pre/corequisite: 6102. [3] Fall
6105. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the acute care practice setting. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Advanced health assessment skills include obtaining appropriate health histories and performing physical examinations on adult patients with complex problems in a variety of acute and chronic health care settings, as well as participating in direct patient care. In addition, the course emphasizes proper documentation of data obtained from the history and physical exams and the development of appropriate differential diagnoses, problem lists, and therapeutic plans of care. Pre/corequisite: 6101, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
6114. Pathophysiology and Collaborative Management in Acute Care for the Adult-Gerontology ACNP I NURS 6114 is the first of a three-course series that explores, at an advanced level, pathophysiology, assessment, diagnoses, and collaborative management of adults and older adults with selected episodic/chronic health problems in acute/critical care. Each student demonstrates in writing his or her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts and current research findings for collaborative management of adult health problems. The course goals are met through didactic content and case study analyses. Pre/corequisite: 6102, 6103. [2]
6115. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Practicum [Formerly NURS 342A] This course is designed to provide clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the acute care nurse practitioner.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The students apply and evaluate nursing theory and pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning and delivery of care in clinical settings. The student practices in clinical settings for a total of 280 hours. Clinical conferences are held weekly and focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to episodic/chronic problems in acute/critical care in the adult population. Prerequisite: 6101, 6102, 6103, 6105, 6114; corequisite: 6124. [4] Spring
6123. Pathophysiology and Collaborative Management in Acute Care for the Adult-Gerontology ACNP II [Formerly NURS 340B] This course explores, at an advanced level, the pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, and collaborative management of adults and older adults with selected episodic/chronic health problems in acute/critical care, including oncology and renal and fluid and electrolyte disorders. Each student demonstrates his/her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts for collaborative management of adult health problems. The course goals are met through didactic content and case study analyses. Pre/corequisite: 6050. Prerequisite: 6102, 6103, 6113. [3] Spring
6124. Pathophysiology and Collaborative Management in Acute Care for the Adult-Gerontology ACNP II NURS 6124 is the second of a three-course series that explores, at an advanced level, pathophysiology, assessment, diagnoses, and collaborative management of adults and older adults with selected episodic/chronic health problems in acute/critical care. Each student demonstrates in writing his or her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts and current research findings for collaborative management of adult health problems. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course goals are met through didactic content and case study analyses. Prerequisite: 6045, 6102, 6103, 6114. Pre/corequisite: 6055. [4] Spring
6125. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Practicum [Formerly NURS 342B] This course is designed to provide clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the acute care adult nurse practitioner.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The clinical setting will be used for application and evaluation of nursing theory and pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning and developing care for culturally diverse adults and older adults in the clinical setting. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 140 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to episodic/chronic problems in acute/critical care in the adult population. Pre/corequisite: 6011 or 6101, 6102, 6103, 6114, 6305. [2] Spring
6133. Pathophysiology and Collaborative Management in Acute Care for the Adult-Gerontology ACNP III [Formerly NURS 340C] This course is third in a sequence of courses that explores, at an advanced level, the pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, and collaborative management of adults and older adults with selected episodic/chronic health problems in acute/critical care, including hematologic, hepatic, endocrine, and gastrointestinal disorders as well as psychosocial needs. Each student demonstrates his or her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts for collaborative management of adult health problems. The course goals are met through didactic content and case study analyses. Prerequisite: 6050, 6102, 6103, 6113 & 6123. Corequisite: 6060 & 6070. [3] Summer
6134. Pathophysiology and Collaborative Management in Acute Care for the Adult-Gerontology ACNP III This course is third in a sequence of courses that explores, at an advanced level, the pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, and collaborative management of adults and older adults with selected episodic/chronic health problems in acute/critical care, including hematologic, hepatic, endocrine, and gastrointestinal disorders as well as psychosocial needs. Each student demonstrates his or her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts for collaborative management of adult health problems. The course goals are met through didactic content and case study analyses. Prerequisite: 6045, 6055, 6102, 6103, 6114, 6124. Pre/corequisite: 6065, 6075. [3] Summer
6135. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Practicum in Intensive Care [Formerly NURS 342C] This course is designed to provide clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the acute care adult nurse practitioner with an intensivist focus. The clinical setting will be used for application and evaluation of pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning and developing care in the clinical setting. Student will be assigned to multidisciplinary critical care teams and will rotate through these teams during the course.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 210 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to episodic/chronic problems in critical care in the adult population. Prerequisites: 6101, 6102, 6103, 6105, 6114; Pre/corequisite: 6124. [4] Spring
6140. Introduction to Transplantation [Formerly NURS 345] This elective course consists of didactic content related to the care of adults undergoing transplantation with emphasis on immunology, immunosuppression, and criteria for transplantation, as well as complications related to transplantation and immunosuppression. An overview of transplantation of the heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and bone marrow is presented. Ethical, psychosocial, and donor selection/management issues are discussed. [2] Spring
6141. Introduction to Neurocritical Care and Management of Neurological Disease This course provides an introduction into the subspecialty field of neurocritical care and management of neurological disease across care settings (i.e. outpatient specialty clinic to intensive care). This course will build upon a foundational understanding of neurocritical care and management of neurological disease specific to the role of the AGACNP or ENP. Prerequisite: 6101, 6102, 6103, 6114. [2] Summer
6142. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Concepts in Advanced Trauma Nursing [Formerly NURS 396G] This course explores, at an advanced practice level, pathophysiology, assessment and diagnosis and collaborative management of adults who have experienced a severe trauma. Each student will demonstrate in writing his or her ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts and current research findings for the collaborative management of trauma patients. Pre/corequisite: 6101, 6105 and 6113 or 6114. [2] Spring
6143. Fundamentals of Point of Care Ultrasound for the Advanced Practice Provider This course introduces advanced practice students to the utilization of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) in clinical practice. Course concepts include basic ultrasound physics and mechanics, anatomical landmarks in the context of pathophysiology, ultrasound exam types, and ultrasound methods for diagnostic, procedural and therapeutic applications of the technology in patient care. Students will participate in module-based didactics and apply course concepts during hands on simulation experiences.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Pre/corequisite: 6102. [2] Summer
6147. Advanced Concepts in Cardiovascular Nursing [Formerly NURS 347] This course is designed to provide a conceptual basis for the diagnosis and treatment of human response to actual and/or potential cardiovascular health problems. The concomitant influence of physical, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental variables will also be explored. Emphasis is placed on acute and/or critically ill adult and older-adult patients with alterations in cardiovascular health states, as well as on the selection and application of concepts and theories relevant to advanced cardiovascular nursing. N347 is an elective support course for students within the Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner (AG-ACNP) Program who wish to develop a foundation for advanced practice in the management of cardiovascular disease. Learning experiences focus on management of cardiovascular disease in acute and critically ill adult and older-adult patient populations. Prerequisite: 6102, 6103 or with permission of course coordinator. [3] Spring
6148. Concepts of Diagnostics and Care for the Hospitalist Acute Care Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 348] The course introduces basic concepts of hospital practice used by adult-gerontology acute care nurse practitioners. The Hospitalist manages care from admission of the adult and older adult patient from admission to discharge, in a variety of hospital settings and situations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. A variety of hospital topics will be covered in this course to include infectious disease, dermatology, wound care and hospital specific pulmonary and cardiac situations. Lab and diagnostic testing during all phases of the hospitalization process, consultation practice, working with ancillary services, including physical occupation and speech therapists and case management issues are also included in the course content. Concurrent enrollment in 6165 is strongly recommended but not required for enrollment in the course. Pre/corequisite: 6102. [2] Spring
6149. Advanced Critical Care Concepts for the ACNP Intensivist [Formerly NURS 396D] This course assists students in developing the competence to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients with a variety of complex critical illnesses. Students will be educated on a variety of advanced intensive care topics. The primary focus is on evidence-based practice diagnostics and treatment of the critically ill patient. This course builds on previous coursework, including the Acute Care Nurse Practitioner core courses. Prerequisite: 6102, and Fundamental Critical Care Support Provider Certification through the Society of Critical Care Medicine’s Course. [3] Spring
6155. Adult Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Intensivist Practicum N6155 is designed to provide clinical experience in and application and integration of the roles of the adult gerontology acute care nurse practitioner as an intensivist. The clinical setting will be used for application, synthesis, and evaluation of nursing theory and pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 280 hours and will focus on working with complex patients in a variety of intensive care units. Clinical conference will be held every week and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to critical care and acute care problems for the adult population in an intensive care setting or step down unit. [4] Summer
6165. Advanced Clinical Skills for the AG-ACNP Hospitalist The course engages the Hospitalist student in simulation geared toward diagnostic techniques and patient management strategies utilized by the adult-gerontology acute care nurse practitioner for hospitalized patients. Additional diagnostic skills and documentation techniques such as assessment note dictation will be introduced in this course. Procedures include I&D of an abscess and skin biopsy. Prerequisite: 6102. Completion or current enrollment in 6148 is required for enrollment in the course. No exceptions will be made. [1] Spring
6170. Advanced Critical Care Simulation [Formerly NURS 396E] This course is designed to provide advanced cognitive and procedural experience in the critical care simulator at the Center for Experimental Learning and Assessment at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. Simulations are designed to provide clinical content surrounding the management of complex patients in the ICU setting. These class sessions provide an opportunity for students to integrate complex diagnostics and therapeutics with communication and team management skills. Sessions focus on clinical situations that student NPs are unlikely to directly manage during their clinical rotation where more experienced providers are available. Prerequisite: 6101, 6105, 6102, 6103, 6113 or 6114, 6135, 6149. Pre/corequisite: 6133 or 6134. [1] Summer
6185. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 343B] N6185 is the final acute care nurse practitioner clinical preceptorship, and is designed to provide clinical experience, application and integration of the roles of the acute care nurse practitioner for students in the dual AG-ACNP/FNP – Emergency Care program. The emergency clinical setting will be used for application, synthesis, and evaluation of nursing theory, pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning and developing care for culturally diverse adults and older adults. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 280 hours, and will focus on working with complex patients. Clinical conference will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to episodic/chronic problems in adult acute/critical care. Pre-requisite: 6101, 6102, 6103, 6113/6114, 6123/6124, 6125, 6301, 6305 Pre/corequisite: 6133/6134, 6385. [4] Summer
6195. Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 343] This course is the final clinical preceptorship, and it is designed to provide clinical experience in and application and integration of the roles of the acute care nurse practitioner. The clinical setting will be used for application, synthesis, and evaluation of nursing theory and pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The students practice in clinical settings for a total of 280 hours, and will focus on working with complex adult and older adult patients. Clinical conference will be held every week and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to episodic/chronic problems in acute/critical care in the adult population. Prerequisite: 6101, 6102, 6103, 6105, 6113 or 6114, 6115, 6123 or 6124, RN licensure; Pre/corequisite: 6133 or 6134. [4] Summer
6205. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the adult practice setting. Advanced health assessment techniques are emphasized. Diverse approaches are used in expanding proficiency in conducting histories and physical examinations in clinical laboratory settings with adult clients. Pre/corequisite: 6011, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
6215. Adult Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Clinical I [Formerly NURS 365A] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on adult health care with emphasis on health promotion, management of common acute and chronic health problems, and client education. Students participate in a clinical rotation in adult health care settings which provide the opportunity for health assessment of the adult and the development of a comprehensive plan of care. Clinical conferences highlight pathophysiological processes and psychological needs of the adults and their families. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of adult settings will be examined. Students explore relevant resources related to adult health care and apply findings to client situations. Pre/corequisite: 6011/6105, 6020, 6010, 6034. [4] Fall, Spring
6231. Essential Procedures for the Primary Care Provider [Formerly NURS 368] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment and primary care of the adult with a focus on procedures commonly performed in the adult practice setting. Using principles of universal precautions and infection control as a foundation, students will learn invasive procedures related to different body systems. Pre/corequisite: 6011. [2] Summer
6234. Adult Gerontology Primary Care II [Formerly NURS 310B] This course is designed to provide students with knowledge needed to assess and manage less common acute and chronic diseases and health problems in the adult and geriatric population. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Multidimensional interventions are discussed (e.g., culturally and environmentally sensitive care, health promotion, symptom palliation). Prerequisite: 6011, 6034; Pre/corequisite: 6010. [3] Spring
6236. Advanced Concepts in the Care of the Elderly [Formerly NURS 310C] This didactic course presents the advanced concepts in the care of the elderly patient. Students examine selected age/related changes, disease processes and comorbidities. Pathophysiology, clinical presentations, interventions, and outcomes are identified. This course integrates the principles of health promotion, disease prevention and rehabilitation. Emphasis is placed on developmental needs and the pathophysiologic processed underlying certain conditions. The impact of the family on the health of the elderly is explored. Students are introduced to the dynamics of the managed care environment. [2] Spring, Summer
6237. Concepts of Mental Health for Adults [Formerly NURS 310D] This didactic course presents common mental health disorders seen in primary care settings within the scope of practice of the AGNP. This course identifies pathophysiology, clinical presentations, interventions, and outcomes of common mental health disorders in adult and geriatric patients. Importance is placed on early screening, diagnosis, treatment and referrals. The reciprocal relationship of mental and physical health is emphasized. Pre/corequisite: 6010, 6020, 6034. [1] Fall, Summer
6295. Adult Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Clinical II [Formerly NURS 365B] In this clinical course, the student implements the role of the Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner working with patients in the primary care setting. The focus is on the synthesis of theory, knowledge and skills from previous courses for the Adult Nurse Practitioner scope of practice. Pre/corequisites: 6010, 6011, 6020, 6031, 6034, 6045, 6055, 6065, 6205, 6215, 6234, 6236. [4] Fall
6301. Concepts of Advanced Emergency Nursing [Formerly NURS 396F] This course provides students with the knowledge base and skills necessary to render emergency and trauma care. This will provide a foundation for future ACNP role development. The essential evaluation, stabilization and critical time management techniques will be discussed. It is essential that the ACNP functioning in the ER be experienced in the assessment of non-urgent, urgent and emergent conditions. In this course, the ACNP student will learn the techniques, physiology, and clinical skills necessary to care for adult patients in an emergency setting. Prerequisite: 6011 or 6101. [Variable 2-3] Spring
6305. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Dual Adult-Gerontology Acute Care NP/Family NP [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the family practice setting. Advanced health assessment techniques are emphasized. Diverse types of approaches are used in expanding proficiency in conducting histories and physical examinations in laboratory and clinical settings. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Communication techniques unique to the specialty population are emphasized. Systematic and organized health assessments that are sensitive to cultural and developmental needs are explored. Students are introduced to the dynamics of the managed health care environment. Experienced nurse practitioners serve as role models in clinical practice. Pre/corequisite: 6101, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
6361. Pathophysiology & Collaborative Management in Emergent & Critical Care This didactic course is designed to provide ENP postmasters students an exploration of the pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, and collaborative management of selected urgent and emergent health problems across the lifespan. Students will demonstrate the ability to analyze, integrate, and synthesize pathophysiologic concepts and current research findings for collaborative management of commonly encountered conditions within emergency care settings. Prerequisite: Enrollment in ENP Specialty Program. Co-requisite: NURS 6365. [3] Fall
6365. Trauma, Emergency & Critical Care Clinical I N6365 is the first in a 2-part clinical sequence designed to provide the FNP with clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the emergency nurse practitioner.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Emergency Department settings allow the student to apply management skills, nursing theory, pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning care for patients across the lifespan. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 210 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and collaborative therapeutic management related to emergency care. Prerequisite: Enrollment in ENP Specialty Program. Co-requisite: NURS 6361. [3] Fall
6375. Trauma, Emergency & Critical Care Clinical II N6375 is the second in a 2-part clinical sequence designed to provide the FNP with clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the acute care emergency nurse practitioner. Emergency Department settings allow the student to apply management skills, nursing theory, pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning care for patients across the lifespan. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 210 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and collaborative and therapeutic management related to emergency care. Prerequisites: Enrollment in ENP Specialty Program, NURS 6361, NURS 6365. Co-requisite: NURS 6301. [3] Spring
6385. Practicum in Emergency Care I [Formerly NURS 397A] This course is designed to provide clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the acute care emergency nurse practitioner. Emergency Department settings will allow the student to apply management skills and evaluate nursing theory, pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning care for adult patients. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 70 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to emergency care of adults. Prerequisites: 6102, 6103, 6305, 6113 or 6114. Corequisites: 6123 or 6124, 6125, 6301. [1] Summer
6395. Practicum in Emergency Care II [Formerly NURS 397B] This course is designed to provide a capstone clinical experience in development and application of the roles of the dual Acute Care and Family NP for ED practice. Emergency Department settings will allow the student to apply management skills and evaluate nursing theory, pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts in planning. The student will practice in clinical settings for a total of 70 hours. Clinical conferences will be held weekly and will focus on pathophysiology, diagnoses, and therapeutic management related to emergency care across the lifespan. Pre/corequisites: 6030, 6031, 6032, 6102, 6103, 6113 or 6114, 6123 or 6124, 6125, 6133 or 6134, 6301, 6305, 6385, 6531, 6532, 6525. [1] Spring
6401. Organizational Behavior [Formerly NURS 380] Integral to management practice is the acquisition of theoretical frameworks that explain organizational theories, management models and decision-making strategies related to health care systems and care delivery. In addition to providing a conceptual understanding of management practice, this course focuses on the development of interpersonal skills and effective leadership styles through role preparation, communication theories and the application of change strategies. Pre/corequisite: Specialty level status. [3] Fall
6402. Leadership [Formerly NURS 382] Theories and models of leadership are explored and students assess their personal leadership styles. Application of leadership theory in complex organization is explored. [3] Spring
6404. Directed Reading [Formerly NURS 384] This is a directed reading course which introduces contemporary works from leaders who are influencing society and healthcare. [2] Spring
6408. Management Strategies for Health Care Systems [Formerly NURS 388] This course will focus on long-term strategic issues that will affect financing, organization and delivery of health care services. Market driven organizations/services are at the core of the course with emphasis on designing as well as operationalizing strategies at the executive and middle management levels as individuals and part of a team. [3] Fall, Summer
6409. Health Care Management of Populations [Formerly NURS 389] This course provides a framework for students to develop and apply both an ethical and a theoretical framework for population-based care management. Students develop a framework for measuring client satisfaction, quality of care, resource efficiency and explore principles of multidisciplinary collaboration. [3] Fall, Summer
6411. Foundations of Leadership The call for nurses to advance and assume leadership positions within their organizations is a current imperative. Amid the complex nature of leadership within health care, this course provides students with a foundation in the many aspects of leadership ranging from an understanding of personal attributes, strengths, and challenges to a review of contemporary leadership theories and conflict management. This introductory course provides practical application of leadership principles. [3] Fall
6414. Organizational Behavior in Complex Health Care Systems The current healthcare environment challenges leaders to think and lead in new ways. Nurse leaders are at the forefront of change, patient safety, and population outcomes. Complexity science influences leadership behavioral models that drive reform, efficiencies, and outcomes.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Fundamental to these new ways of leading change is the emphasis on the quality of relationships, the ability to lead teams, and the ability to inspire others. This course offers students a paradigm shift in thinking from a focus on linear or hierarchical traditional models to a transformational, collaborative, and relationship-based leadership approach. [3] Fall
6417. Advanced Leadership and Human Capital This course focuses on the art and science of leading and managing people. The course guides students in their quest to become resonant leaders, coaches, and mentors, and to embrace diversity in the teams they lead. Reality based decision making is explored as an approach to support high quality and safe patient care. [3] Spring
6485. Management Practicum I [Formerly NURS 386] The students apply models of CQI organizational behavior, outcome measurement, informatics, and financial management in a selected health care setting. This practicum provides students with an opportunity to work closely with a manager in a variety of health care settings. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The students experience positive role modeling while contributing to the functioning of the health care agency. Students work on agency designated projects throughout the practicum. Corequisites: 6041 & 6402. [3] Fall, Spring, Summer
6495. Management Practicum II [Formerly NURS 387] This practicum provides the student with an opportunity to work closely with a manager or administrator in a formal mentorship arrangement in a health care setting. The student has an opportunity to observe and practice management and leadership skills in a health care organization. The role of a leader is explored in the context of the changing health care environment. In addition, the student works on agency-designated projects and presents the process and results of a completed project. This practicum builds on skills and experiences attained in 6485, Practicum I, of the HSM program. Students are assigned to a more senior leader in 6495, and complexity of course deliverables is enhanced. Pre/corequisite: 6485. [4] Fall, Spring, Summer
6505. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Family Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the family practice setting. Advanced health assessment techniques are emphasized. Diverse types of approaches are used in expanding proficiency in conducting histories and physical examinations in laboratory and clinical settings. Communication techniques unique to the specialty population are emphasized.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Systematic and organized health assessments that are sensitive to cultural and developmental needs are explored. Pre/corequisite: 6011, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
6521. The Context of Primary Care: Family Nurse Practitioner Domains and Core Competencies for Practice [Formerly NURS 361A] This course is designed to provide Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) students with the knowledge of the context of primary care and related domains and core competencies of family nurse practitioner practice identified by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF). Specific content of the course covers the hallmarks of primary care and the seven domains and focuses on operationalizing competencies into practice. Competencies needed to promote and protect health and prevent disease are emphasized. Pre-requisite knowledge: This course builds on previous course work involving the assessment, diagnosis, and management of common and chronic conditions seen in the primary care setting. Graduate status and FNP specialty student required. [2] Spring
6525. Practicum in Primary Health Care of the Child and Adolescent [Formerly NURS 362] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on child and adolescent health care with an emphasis on health promotion, management of common health problems, and client education. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. A developmental approach across the lifespan is used in assessing the client and family in formulating the treatment plan. Students participate in a clinical rotation in a pediatric health care setting which provides the opportunity for health assessment of the child and adolescent and formulation of a comprehensive plan of care. Clinical conferences highlight various pathophysiological and psychological processes encountered with children and their families. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of pediatric settings is examined. Relevant resources and research related to the child and adolescent are explored with the application of findings to the care of clients. Pre/Corequisites: 6011 (or 6101), 6305 or 6505, 6010, 6020, 6531, 6031. [2] Spring
6531. Advanced Practice Nursing in Primary Care of the Child [Formerly NURS 309B] This course presents knowledge necessary for the practice of primary health care of children. Course content includes the principles of health promotion, disease prevention and assessment, and management of common primary health care problems in diverse pediatric populations. Emphasis is placed on developmental needs and the pathophysiologic processes underlying certain conditions. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The impact of the family on the health of the child is explored. Students are introduced to the dynamics of the managed care environment. Prerequisite: 6011. [2] Spring
6532. Advanced Practice Nursing in the Primary Care of the Elderly [Formerly NURS 309D] In this didactic course, knowledge is presented that is necessary for the practice of primary health care nursing of the elderly. Course content includes the principles of health promotion, disease prevention and assessment, and management of common primary health care problems in diverse elderly populations. Emphasis is placed on developmental needs and the pathophysiologic processes underlying certain conditions. The impact of the family on the health of the elderly is explored. Students are introduced to the dynamics of the managed care environment. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prerequisite: 6011. [1] Spring
6535. Practicum in Primary Health Care of the Adult for Dual Specialty [Formerly NURS 363A] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on adult health care with an emphasis on health promotion, management of common acute and chronic health problems, and client education. A developmental approach across the lifespan is used in assessing the client and family in formulating the treatment plan. Students participate in a clinical rotation in adult health care settings which provide the opportunity for health assessment of the adult and the development of a comprehensive plan of care. Clinical conferences highlight pathophysiological processes and psychological needs of the adults and their families. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of adult settings will be examined. Students explore relevant resources related to adult health care and apply findings to client situations. This course is for Adult-Gerontology/Family Nurse Practitioner: Emergency Care Focus students. Prerequisites: 6101, 6305. Corequisites: 6010, 6020, 6030. [3] Fall, Summer
6545. Practicum in Primary Health Care of the Adult [Formerly NURS 363C] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on adult health care with emphasis on health promotion, management of common acute and chronic health problems, and client education.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students participate in a clinical rotation in adult health care settings which provide the opportunity for health assessment of the adult and the development of a comprehensive plan of care. Clinical conferences highlight pathophysiological processes and psychological needs of the adults and their families. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of adult settings will be examined. Students explore relevant resources related to adult health care and apply findings to client situations. This course is for NMW and NMW/FNP students. Prerequisite: 6011, 6805, 6810; Pre/Corequisite: 6020, 6821. [2] Spring
6555. Practicum in Primary Health Care of the Family [Formerly NURS 360A] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on child, adolescent and adult health care with an emphasis on health promotion, management of common health problems, and client education.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. A developmental approach across the lifespan is used in assessing the client and family in formulating the treatment plan. Students participate in a clinical rotation in a primary care setting which provides the opportunity for health assessment of clients of all ages and the formulation of a comprehensive plan of care. Clinical conferences highlight various pathophysiological and psychological processes encountered with clients and their families. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of primary health care settings will be examined. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Relevant resources/research related to health is explored with the application of findings to the care of clients. Prerequisite: 6011, 6505; Corequisite: 6010, 6020, 6030, 6031, 6531. [Variable credit – 4 for FNP; 2 for NMW/FNP] Spring
6565. Practicum in Primary Health Care of the Family [Formerly NURS 360B] This course is a clinical practicum focusing on child, adolescent and adult health care with an emphasis on health promotion, management of common health problems, and client education. A developmental approach across the lifespan is used in assessing the client and family in formulating the treatment plan. Students participate in a clinical rotation in a primary care setting which provides the opportunity for heal assessment of clients of all ages and the formulation of a comprehensive plan of care.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Clinical conferences highlight various pathophysiological and psychological processes encountered with clients and their families. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of primary health care settings will be examined. Relevant resources/research related to health is explored with the application of findings to the care of clients. Prerequisite: 6010, 6011, 6020, 6030, 6031, 6505, 6531, 6532, 6555. [1] Summer
6575. Clinical Decision Making for the Family Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 360C] This clinical course builds on knowledge and skills developed in previous didactic courses and implemented in the first practicum. Emphasis is on utilization of evidence-based practice and the integration of technology into primary care. This course focuses on management of the patient with complex acute or chronic illness.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The purpose of the course is to enable the student to enter practice with the ability to independently manage patients across the lifespan. Prerequisite: 6010, 6011, 6020, 6030, 6031, 6032, 6505, 6521, 6531, 6532, 6555. Corequisite: 6565, 6585. [1] Summer
6585. Family Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 364] In this clinical course, the student implements the role of the family nurse practitioner working with clients across the lifespan and their families in urban and/or rural primary care settings. The focus is on the integration of theory, knowledge, and skills from previous courses within the family nurse practitioner scope of practice. Pre/corequisite for FNP students: 6555, 6565; pre/corequisite for NMW/FNP students: 6545, 6555. [4] Spring, Summer
6595. Family Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship for AG-ACNP/FNP Dual Specialty [Formerly NURS 364A] In this clinical course, the student implements the role of the family nurse practitioner working with clients across the lifespan and their families in urban and/or rural primary care settings. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The focus is on the integration of theory, knowledge, and skills from previous courses within the family nurse practitioner scope of practice for students who are pursuing dual preparation. Pre- or co-requisites: 6030, 6031, 6032, 6525, 6531, 6532, 6535, all core courses. [3] Spring, Summer
6602. Developmental/Neonatal Physiology [Formerly NURS 306C] This course provides an in-depth examination of human genetics, embryologic development and normal physiologic functioning of developing body systems. Mechanisms involved in cell division, gametogenesis, and inheritance patterns are addressed. The structural and functional development of fetal systems, during critical periods, is emphasized. Abnormalities and alterations in fetal development are explored.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Environmental factors that influence the structural and functional development of fetal systems are discussed. Long-term clinical implications of alterations in structure and physiologic functioning are also addressed. [2] Fall. Fall
6605. Advanced Neonatal Health Assessment [Formerly NURS 305C] This core course provides opportunities for NNP students to develop the knowledge and skills needed to perform a comprehensive health and gestational age assessment. Data to collect when eliciting a health history, principles of performing a physical and gestational age assessment, diagnostic study interpretations, and examination techniques are stressed in the didactic portion of the course.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Critical thinking is emphasized as the basis for synthesis of knowledge regarding the performance of health histories, physical assessments and identification of potential diagnostic tests for alterations in clinical findings. Emphasis is placed on the recognition of assessment findings that deviate from normal. 56 hours of supervised clinical experience in the regular newborn nursery and/or Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Unit provides students with opportunities to perform health histories, health assessments and gestational age assessments with both normal and late preterm infants. [3] Fall
6610. Neonatal Nursing Birth Through 2 Years of Age [Formerly NURS 316] This course focuses on the health status and care of the neonates and infants through 2 years of age. Emphasis is placed on theories of attachment, growth and development through 2 years of age. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course is designed to help students in the use of critical thinking to foster health promotion, primary prevention of illness and management of common older infant medical conditions. Physical, social, cognitive and emotional growth will be addressed as well as issues associated with the development of sleep/wake cycles, infant behavior, newborn laboratory screening, feeding, infant and childhood immunizations, safety, and common parental concerns. Normal variations and minor disruptions in aspects of newborn and infant health are emphasized. Knowledge synthesized from this course provides an essential working foundation for future neonatal/infant course work.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Clinical practice in the role of the NNP related to infant outcomes and ethical dilemmas are discussed. Corequisite: 6602. [2] Fall
6614. Neonatal Pathophysiology and Management I [Formerly NURS 317A] This is the first of two sequential courses in which students examine the pathophysiology and management of ill neonates/infants and their families. Theory and research form the basis for discussions of clinical assessment and restorative care. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course emphasizes the role of the advanced practice nurse in the care of high-risk neonates/infants. Perinatal risk factors associated with variations in neonatal health and functioning are also examined. Issues, trends and legal issues of the NNP role are addressed. Corequisite: 6602, 6605, 6610. [3] Fall
6615. Neonatal Practicum [Formerly NURS 318] Clinical practicum and seminars provide opportunities for developing advanced skills in the nursing care of level II neonates and infants through 2 years of age. Experiences in facilitating and evaluating continuity of care across several settings are a major thrust. Students may work collaboratively with NNPs on unit-based projects as part of the practicum. Advanced practice nursing roles and expert skills are critically examined in clinical and individual conferences. RN licensure is required prior to beginning clinical hours. This course builds on the knowledge obtained during the fall and early part of the spring semesters. Students are expected to attend deliveries and provide complete care to neonates/infants in a level II nursery. Experiences will also occur in the newborn follow-up clinic or pediatrician office to care for older infants through 2 years of age if available. Prerequisite: 6602, 6605, 6610, 6614; corequisite: 6620, 6624; successful completion of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) is required prior to clinical. [3] Spring
6620. Introduction to Advanced Procedures for Neonatal Nurse Practitioners [Formerly NURS 315] This course provides students with an introduction to the advanced practice skills commonly performed by neonatal nurse practitioners. A step-by-step practical approach is taken to describe the procedures. Students demonstrate an understanding of essential intensive care nursery concepts, skill, and equipment necessary for completing direct bedside assessment and care of neonates in a safe manner.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The theoretical basis, indications and complications for these skills are emphasized. Students have the opportunity to practice the skills presented in the course under the supervision of experienced Advanced Practice Neonatal Nurses. The differentiation between normal and abnormal lab values are also emphasized. Prerequisite: 6602, 6605, 6610, 6614. Corequisite: 6621, 6624. [3] Spring
6621. Advanced Neonatal Pharmacotherapeutics [Formerly NURS 307D] This course provides students preparing for roles within the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner specialty with knowledge of the pharmacotherapeutics for common classifications of drugs used to care for neonates and infants.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The physiologic action of selected prescription drugs, unexpected client responses and major untoward effects encountered in diseases of the neonates are discussed. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, their clinical application and the use of pharmacologic agents in the prevention of illness and the restoration and maintenance of health are emphasized. Emphasis is placed on indications for correct drug choice, usual dose, routes of administration, pharmacological mechanisms in association with drug interactions, adverse effects; and contraindications for use are included. Discussions of clinical judgments in the management and evaluation of pharmacologic therapeutic agents for neonatal use are emphasized. Prerequisite: Graduate level standing and admission to the NNP specialty. Can be taken as a special student with permission of the instructor. [3] Spring
6624. Neonatal Pathophysiology and Management II [Formerly NURS 317B] This is the second of two sequential courses in which students examine the pathophysiology and management of ill neonates/infants and their families. Theory and research form the basis for discussions of clinical assessment and restorative care. This course continues to emphasize the role of the advanced practice nurse in the care of high-risk neonates/infants. Integration of previous knowledge of embryology, physiology, pathophysiology, interpretation of lab data, radiologic findings and collaboration with other health professionals are emphasized. Prerequisite: 6602, 6605, 6610, 6614; Corequisite: 6620, 6621. [3] Spring
6695. Neonatal Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 319] Students synthesize theory, knowledge, and skills from previous courses within the neonatal nurse practitioner scope of practice. Clinical preceptorships provide students with opportunities to further develop expertise relevant to the assessment and management of groups of neonates and infants through 2 years of age. Prerequisite: 6602, 6605, 6610, 6614, 6615, 6620, 6624; all core courses. [6] Summer
6710. Fundamentals of Nursing Informatics-NI Professional Formation 1 This course provides an overview of informatics and the role it plays in the delivery of evidence based care. With a focus on healthcare information technology’s contribution to data acquisition, this course will enhance the learner’s understanding of the transformation of data into information and knowledge. A practical approach is taken to ensure learners understand essential elements of informatics practice such as the system development lifecycle, the electronic health record, national health policy, patient quality, and the safe use of technology. This course prepares the learner to optimize the use of clinical systems and technology tools to continue to advance practice and drive clinical transformation. [3] Fall
6711. Technology Components of Informatics [Formerly NURS 381B] This course explores the structure and function of networks and network based applications as they relate to their use within healthcare and healthcare education. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Topics covered include basic concepts of infrastructure (IP addressing, routing and networks), the basic technology behind medical recording, BYOD (bring your own device) such as Cell Phones and Tablets, data collection and analysis tools, social networking including synchronous communication applications, and educational applications including asynchronous screen narration applications and Learning Management Systems. [2] Fall
6712. Desktop Maintenance [Formerly NURS 381D] The purpose of this course is to teach how to properly maintain your computer to minimize problems that may occur and handle simple issues and problems with your computer. The course will also cover how to properly install and uninstall hardware and software, how and when to rebuild your system, how to protect your system from worms and viruses, and the hows and whys of creating a home network connected to a broadband environment such as cable or DSL. [1] Fall
6715. Clinical Informatics Practicum I [Formerly NURS 392B] Students apply concepts and theories in clinical informatics in selected health care settings. This practicum provides students with an opportunity to work closely with a preceptor to prepare a needs assessment for a nursing informatics project. In this clinical course, the student implements the role of the clinical informatics nurse in any health care setting. The focus is on the integration of theory, knowledge, and skills from previous courses within the various roles open to an informatics nurse specialist. Prerequisite: 6723 [2] Spring
6720. Theories, Frameworks and Models Supporting Informatics Practice-NI Professional Formation 2 This course is the second in a series of courses facilitating professional formation for the informatics nurse specialist. Building on content from NI Professional Formation 1, learners will develop knowledge and skills in the concepts, theories, models, and frameworks that support informatics practice.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Topics include evidence-based practice, organizational theories, systems thinking, the socio-technical model, human factors engineering principles, and information science theories. The application of ethical principles and systematic change processes will be emphasized throughout the course. Prerequisite: 6710. [3] Spring
6722. Consumer Health Care Informatics [Formerly NURS 381G] This course addresses the consumer’s use of electronic information systems and applications to improve their medical outcomes and their health care decisions. How informatics solutions impact the health care partnership of provider and patient is explored. Various technology and applications that empower consumers are reviewed. Studies that evaluate the effectiveness of health care informatics in patient outcomes are included. [2] Spring
6723. Informatics of Clinical Practice [Formerly NURS 392A] Informatics of clinical practice focuses on a structured approach to methodologies, techniques, and tools for information system development and implementation. The systems development life cycle approach incorporates the following phases: planning, analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation. The role of informatics nurse specialist is featured as well as the role of end users in this process. Prerequisite: 6003. [3] Spring
6724. Leveraging Technology for Learning and Teaching in Healthcare Informatics nurse specialists have the responsibility to teach their professional colleagues how to use the latest information technology applications. This course will expose learners to adult learning principles that translate into evidence-based, technology-facilitated learning activities. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Technology enhanced instructional tools for professional development and patient education will be covered. [3] Summer
6725. Web Development for Health Care Applications Informaticists spend a significant amount of their time dealing with technology implementation, rollout, and training. In this course, students will learn how to create eLearning modules designed to train their staff or students how to perform a specific task, such as how to use a new or modified feature in a HER environment. The course covers the basics of ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) instructional design, hoe to create a module in an eLearning product, and how to mount it on a webserver or Learning Management System (LMS). Along the way the course will have to cover the role of a VPN environment and how to mount a shared drive to a server. [3] Spring
6727. Data to Information I Given the explosion of data generation and availability in recent years, skills for managing large amounts of data and gaining insights from these data are essential for informatics nurse specialists. This first of two courses focuses on extracting information from data and will emphasize data collection, database design, data querying, and descriptive analysis. Learners will gain practical experience and skills in creating a database application and then retrieving and analyzing data found in their database. [3] Fall
6728. Data to Information II Building upon Data to Information I, this course focuses on the use of rapidly growing clinical data to support continuous learning in healthcare. Learners will be exposed to key concepts in Learning Health Systems, data science, machine learning, “big data,” and the application of diverse methods to improve the quality of healthcare outside of traditional clinical trials and related approaches. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course will emphasize data science studies in biomedical literature, clinical prediction models, and collaboration with data scientists. Prerequisite: 6727. [3] Spring
6730. Advanced Concepts of Informatics-NI Professional Formation 3 This course is the third in a series of courses facilitating professional formation in the informatics nurse specialist role. Building on content from NI Professional Formation 2, learners will acquire advanced knowledge in contemporary health informatics topics applicable to local, national, and global environments. Ranging from interoperability to knowledge representation to genetics/genomics to health policy to healthcare delivery outside the clinical environment, this survey course will cover a large breadth of topics and facilitate learners’ ability to acquire greater content depth in a self-directed manner. Learners will also be exposed to professional development and career planning resources. Prerequisite: 6720. [3] Summer
6731. Informatics of Evidence-Based Practice [Formerly NURS 392C] This course addresses informatics techniques to bring the best available evidence about nursing to the point of care to support the patient’s health and decision making. The relationship between standardized languages, electronic documentation systems, and evidence-based nursing practice are explored. Use of the Internet to select and customize nursing interventions, point of care devices, and Web-based diagnostic decision support systems are examined. [3]. Summer
6732. Project Management [Formerly NURS 381W] This course addresses the essential principles and tools of project management. Project integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk, and procurement management are discussed. [2] Summer
6735. Database Design for Health Care Applications [Formerly NURS 381E] The purpose of this course is to teach how to create online database applications in the health care field. While it is not the goal of this course to train the participants how to create full-fledged hospital management systems and electronic medical record systems, students will develop an understanding of the basic concepts underlying these systems by creating simple database applications on the Web.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Database concepts including user interface design, table design, normalization, password protection, and data queries are basically the same regardless of the purpose of the application. Upon completion of this course, the students will have an appreciation and understanding of large scale database environments in their field and be able to communicate effectively with management system software developers using the appropriate terminology. Prerequisite: Knowledge of Web design and HTML. [2] Summer
6795. Clinical Informatics Practicum II [Formerly NURS 392D] In this clinical course, the student implements the role of the informatics nurse specialist working in a health care environment. The focus of this course is the integration of theory, knowledge, and skills from previous courses from the perspective of project management. Pre/corequisites: 6040, 6723, 6731. [2] Summer
6805. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the nurse-midwifery practice setting. Techniques, including communication skills, used in assessment of the health status of women and the fetus are developed and refined in laboratory and clinical settings.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Congruence of philosophical concepts among the profession, school, and the program is introduced. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), Standards for Midwifery Practice, and Code of Ethics provide the basis for clinical actions. This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on clients commonly seen in the nurse-midwifery practice setting. Pre/corequisite: 6011, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
6810. Women’s Health for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 327A] Consistent with the emerging definitions of women’s health and women’s health practice, this course examines a full range of health issues unique to women. Women’s health specialization includes prevention, the societal and political determinants of health, patient education, and reconceptualization of women’s relationships with health care providers. Health assessment and maintenance as well as disease identification and treatment will be presented on a wellness to illness continuum. Students utilize current research in women’s health and identify potential research opportunities. This course builds on knowledge of basic reproductive anatomy and physiology as well as techniques of assessment to facilitate student’s ability to translate knowledge into clinical application. Students synthesize knowledge of organic processes, normal and abnormal, to learn assessment, management, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions encountered by the clinician whose scope is the care of women. Pre/corequisite: 6011. [3] Fall
6811. Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology [Formerly NURS 306B] Normal anatomy and physiologic processes of reproduction, including changes during the maternity cycle, are studied. Selected physiologic processes associated with healthy women across the lifespan, human genetics, development of the products of conception, the maternity cycle and the implications for client adaptations are examined. [2] Fall
6812. Evolution of Midwifery in America [Formerly NURS 333] This course surveys the historical and social literature of midwifery nursing and medicine in the context of the care of women and infants. Development of midwifery and the professional organization are analyzed and interpreted. Development of the midwife and nurse-midwife are examined in relation to societal, economic, and political issues involved in health care systems from the 18th century to present.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Dynamics that affect the medical and midwifery models of care will be discussed to provide critical understanding of women’s health care in America. Prerequisite: none. [2] Fall
6815. Nurse-Midwifery Practicum I [Formerly NURS 331] Students apply advanced knowledge of normal physiology, pathophysiology and psychosocial concepts to nurse-midwifery care of women from premenarche through post-menopause. Students apply specific components of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Philosophy, Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including the Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), Standards for the Practice of Midwifery, and the Code of Ethics to women from peri-menarche through post-menopause including primary care, preconception, antepartal, and interconceptional periods. Clinical experience is under the supervision of nurse-midwifery, nurse practitioner, or physician preceptors in a variety of settings. Students have the opportunity to identify and discuss risk management and ethical issues inherent in clinical practice. This course uses content on women’s health and preconception from N6810 and physiology of pregnancy from N6811. This course will address the clinical application of gynecologic care, both normal and pathology, over the lifetime, as well as maternal changes and fetal development in pregnancy building on content from these courses. Prerequisites: 6011, 6805, 6810; corequisites: 6020, 6821. [2] Spring
6821. Antepartal Care for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 330] This course provides the theoretical basis of individualized family-centered management of pregnancy for women of diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Pregnancy is viewed as a normal physiologic and developmental process that affects and is affected by a variety of factors, including psychosocial, epidemiologic, legal and ethical issues. Strategies are presented for health promotion and disease prevention, including preconception and prenatal screening, health education, empowerment of women, and collaboration with other health care providers. Selected complications of pregnancy are addressed, and appropriate applications of technology, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and common complementary and alternative therapies are considered. A variety of evidence supporting management decisions is critically examined, including published research, standards of care, and risk management principles.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Philosophy, Code of Ethics, ACNM Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), and the Standards for Midwifery Practice provide the framework of the course. Prerequisite: 6810. Pre/corequisite: 6811 [3] Spring
6831. Skills for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 334] This course provides nurse-midwifery students with clinical and laboratory experiences needed to develop skills necessary during uncomplicated birth and specific complicated or emergency situations in the intrapartum and postpartum periods. Prerequisite: 6805, 6810. Pre/Corequisite: 6821. [1] Summer
6835. Practicum in Intrapartum/Postpartum/Neonatal Nurse-Midwifery Care [Formerly NURS 335] Students will integrate principles, current literature, theory and research findings into the management of the care of women during the intrapartum and postpartum periods, and management of the newborn from birth to 28 days of life. Methods of screening for abnormalities, supporting healthy adaptation to extrauterine life, and facilitating healthy parental-newborn family relationships are applied. Students have the opportunity to apply components of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Philosophy, Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including the Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), and Standards for the Practice of Midwifery, and the Code of Ethics in the management of labor, birth, and the puerperium, as well as in management of the newborn through 28 days of life. Clinical objectives are achieved in a variety of settings under the preceptorship of experienced certified nurse-midwives and physicians. Prerequisite: 6011, 6020, 6805, 6811, 6815. Pre/Corequisite: 6831, 6836, 6838. [4] Summer
6836. Intrapartum Care for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 336] This course examines the theoretical basis of intrapartum nurse-midwifery management. Multidisciplinary theories, concepts, and research are synthesized to develop safe management plans that are culturally and ethically appropriate and applicable to the physical, emotional, and educational needs of the childbearing woman and her family. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Nurse-midwifery management recognizes pregnancy and birth as a normal physiologic and developmental process. Management includes non-intervention in the absence of complications as well as selected intrapartum complications and emergencies. A variety of evidence supporting management decisions is critically examined, including published research, standards of care, and risk management principles. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Philosophy, Code of Ethics, ACNM Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), and the Standards for Midwifery Practice provide the framework of the course. Prerequisite: 6011, 6020, 6805, 6810, 6811, 6815, 6821. [3] Summer
6838. Nurse-Midwifery Care of the Mother-Baby Dyad [Formerly NURS 338] This course examines theory and research related to nurse-midwifery management of the maternal/newborn dyad during the post-partum period, and strategies for facilitating healthy physiological adaptation and parental-family-newborn relationships. Methods of screening for and collaborative management of common abnormalities are discussed. Management includes non-intervention in the absence of complications as well as selected postpartum complications and emergencies. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), Standards of Midwifery Practice and Code of Ethics provide the framework for the course. Prerequisite: 6010 and 6020. Corequisite: NRP. [2] Summer
6841. Nurse-Midwifery Role Synthesis, Exploration, and Analysis [Formerly NURS 304B] This course is designed to prepare the nurse-midwifery student for entry into professional practice. In addition, concepts related to leadership, reimbursement and quality principles to continually improve healthcare are applied. The course builds on information initially discussed in NURS 6812 Evolution of Midwifery in America. Pre-requisites: 6812. Co-requisites: 6895 or permission of instructor. [2] Fall
6895. Advanced Clinical Integration Experience for Nurse-Midwifery [Formerly NURS 339] The final nurse-midwifery practicum allows the student to practice full scope nurse-midwifery under the supervision of experienced Certified Nurse-Midwife preceptors, managing women’s health care from perimenarche through the postmenopausal periods and newborn health care from birth through the first month of life. Full scope nurse-midwifery care includes the areas of gynecology, family planning, preconception, antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, newborn, breast-feeding support, common health problems in the pregnant and non-pregnant woman, and the peri and postmenopausal periods. Students immerse themselves in the clinical practice to which they are assigned and reside in the community in which it is located, providing for continuity of care. Practice is in collaboration with the client and other health care providers, consulting and referring according to the nurse-midwifery management process. Academic faculty are closely involved with the selection of appropriate clinical sites and ongoing advisement and evaluation of the student during the practicum. A written comprehensive exam is taken after the practicum is completed. By the end of the course, the graduate is prepared to assume the role of the beginning professional nurse-midwife and to sit for the American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB) certification examination. The AMCB Philosophy, Code of Ethics, and Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (including Hallmarks of Midwifery and Midwifery Management Process), and the Standards for Midwifery Practice provide the framework of the course. Prerequisite: 6030, 6815, 6821, 6831, 6835, 6836, 6838. [5] Fall
7011. Health Promotion of Behavior Development: Birth through Adolescence [Formerly NURS 311] This course focuses on the theoretical basis for pediatric advanced nursing practice emphasizing the development of the child and adolescent as an individual within the context of family and society. Using a family-centered approach, this course considers factors, techniques and research which facilitate or interfere with healthy development. Emphasis is placed on developing strategies for providing appropriate anticipatory guidance, health promotion, and disease prevention interventions within the life course. Pre/corequisite: None. [3] Fall
7012. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Primary Care-Part I [Formerly NURS 312A] This is the first course in a two-part pediatric primary care didactic course sequence. Information is presented that is necessary for the practice of primary health care nursing of children and adolescents. Course content includes information related to the principles of health promotion, disease prevention, and assessment and management of common primary health care problems in children and adolescents by pediatric nurse practitioners. Content is presented within a family-centered and developmental perspective and includes content related to advanced pathophysiology, research, psychosocial factors, and ethical considerations.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prerequisite: Graduate level standing, admission to the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Program; Corequisite: 7011, 7013, 7015 or 7025, 6010. [3] Fall
7013. Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Reasoning [Formerly NURS 305D] Students differentiate abnormal from normal findings using advanced assessment techniques, interpret diagnostic study results and use clinical reasoning to formulate diagnoses for culturally diverse pediatric patients. Synthesizing a systematic, organized, family-centered health assessment that is sensitive to growth and development needs is emphasized. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies are discussed. Pre/corequisite: 6010, 7015 or 7025. [2] Fall
7015. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Primary Care Pediatric Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305E] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with focus on clients commonly seen in the pediatric practice setting. Techniques, including communication skills, used to assess the health status of children and adolescents are enhanced and refined. Diverse clinical experiences are used to develop proficiency in history taking and health assessment techniques with infants, children, and adolescents within the context of family-centered care. Synthesizing a systematic and organized health assessment that is sensitive to growth and developmental needs and which will provide the most pertinent data with the least risk to the infant and child-adolescent is emphasized. Corequisite: 7013. [1] Fall
7021. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Primary Care-Part II [Formerly NURS 312B] In this second part of the pediatric primary care didactic course sequence, information is presented that is necessary for the practice of primary health care nursing of children and adolescents. Course content builds upon the information presented in Part I related to the principles of health promotion, disease prevention, and assessment and management of common primary health care problems in children and adolescents. Using a family-centered and developmental perspective, related advanced pathophysiology, research, psychosocial factors, and ethical considerations are explored. Prerequisite: 6010, 7011, 7012, 7013/7015; Pre/corequisite: 7023. [3] Spring
7022. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Acute Care-Part I [Formerly NURS 312C] In this first part of the pediatric acute care didactic course sequence, information is presented that is necessary for the practice and management of acutely ill, critically ill, and chronically ill children and adolescents. Course content relates to the principles of assessment and management of common health care problems in children and adolescents. A portion of the course includes information necessary for PNPs to care for pediatric clients with special needs and their families. Using a family-centered and developmental perspective, related advanced pathophysiology, research, psychosocial factors, and ethical considerations are explored. Prerequisite: 6010, 7011, 7013, 7012, 7025; corequisite: 7024, 7045. [3] Spring
7023. Advanced Pharmacotherapeutics [Formerly NURS 307E] This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge of pharmacokinetics that will enable the student to safely and appropriately select pharmacologic agents (prescription and over the counter) for the management of common acute and chronic health problems of pediatric clients. Specific content of the course covers representative drugs of a pharmacologic group, indications for use, drug selection, titration of dose, key adverse effects, and monitoring of therapy and alternative therapy. Prerequisite: Graduate level standing; admission to the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner program; Corequisites: 6010, 7011. [3] Spring
7024. Advanced Pharmacotherapeutics This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics which will enable the student to safely and appropriately select pharmacologic agents for the management of acute and chronic health problems of pediatric clients in the acute care setting. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Specific content of the course covers representative drugs of pharmacologic groups, indications for use, drug selection, titration of dose, key adverse effects, drug to drug interactions and monitoring of therapy. Legal and ethical considerations in pediatric pharmacotherapy are discussed. Pre/co-requisites: 6010, 7011, 7012, 7013, 7025. [3] Spring
7025. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Acute Care Pediatric Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305G] This clinical course builds on content presented in NUR 7013. Laboratory and clinical experiences are provided to develop techniques of advanced physical and developmental assessment of the well child. Oral and written communication skills necessary for effective history taking and inter-professional collaboration are refined. The clinical experience in pediatric primary care provides an opportunity for the student to apply principles of family-centered care. Pre/corequisite: 6010, 7011, 7013. [1] Fall
7031. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Acute Care-Part II This course is the second part of the acute care content designed to provide students with the knowledge necessary for the management of acutely ill, chronically ill, and critically ill children and adolescents.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Course content builds upon the illness management presented in NURS 7022, and that of NURS 7025 related to the principles of assessment and management of common health care problems and developmental issues in children and adolescents. A portion of the course includes information necessary for PNP-ACs to care for pediatric clients with special needs and their families. Using a family-centered and developmental perspective, related advanced pathophysiology, research, psychosocial factors, and ethical considerations are explored. Prerequisites: 6010, 7011, 7013, 7022, 7025, 7045. Corequisite: 7095. [3] Summer
7032. Current Issues in the Delivery of Advanced Pediatric Care [Formerly NURS 313] The focus of this course is on the pediatric nurse practitioner role in developing, implementing, and evaluating comprehensive care with pediatric clients. Applications of effective strategies with selected families and populations are emphasized. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course provides an opportunity for synthesis of knowledge and skills, including management and communication strategies, health policies and trends, appropriate theories, and ethical principles. Pre/corequisite: None. [3] Summer
7035. Practicum in Primary Health Care of Children [Formerly NURS 314A] This course is a precepted clinical practicum focusing on pediatric health care in the primary care setting with an emphasis on health promotion, management of common health problems, and client education. A developmental approach is used in assessing the child and adolescent and formulating the treatment plan. Nursing strategies to educate and assist children and families in adaptation to special health needs will be discussed and implemented.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Learners also participate in clinical conferences where various pathophysiological and psychological processes encountered with the child and his/her family will be discussed. The role of the nurse practitioner as a primary health care provider in a variety of pediatric settings is examined. Learners explore relevant resources/research related to pediatric health care and apply findings to the care of clients. Prerequisite: 6010, 7011, 7012, 7013, 7015; Pre/corequisite: 7021, 7023. [4] Spring
7045. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Acute Care Practicum – I [Formerly NURS 314C] This course is a precepted clinical practicum focusing on inpatient management of acutely ill, chronically ill, and critically ill pediatric patients. A developmental approach is used to assess hospitalized pediatric patients and formulate a comprehensive plan of care.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Precepted clinical rotations in acute pediatric health-care settings provide the opportunity for advanced health assessment of the child, interdisciplinary collaboration, and comprehensive patient care management. All clinical experiences must occur in the acute care setting. Integrated principles of advanced pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts will be applied to the care of acutely ill pediatric patients and their families. Emphasis will be placed on evidence-based, family-centered, culturally-competent pediatric health care. The role of the pediatric nurse practitioner as an acute care provider in a variety of pediatric settings will be examined. Prerequisite: 6010, 7012, 7013, 7025, 311. Corequisite: 7022 and 7024. [4] Spring
7085. Advanced Pediatric Primary Care Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 314B] The focus of this clinical practicum is on implementation of the pediatric nurse practitioner role in delivering primary care to pediatric clients.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The preceptorship provides a broad practice experience which allows for synthesis of knowledge and skills acquired in prerequisite and corequisite coursework. Emphasis is on providing comprehensive care to pediatric clients and families across a variety of practice settings in collaboration with other health professionals. At least 240 of the total clinical hours will be in primary care settings. Clinical seminars will focus on professional role issues for pediatric nurse practitioners and case presentations. Prerequisite: 6010, 7011, 7012, 7013, 7015, 7021, 7023, 7035. [5] Summer
7095. Advanced Practice Nursing in Pediatric Acute Care Practicum – II [Formerly NURS 314D] This course is a precepted clinical practicum focusing on the management of acutely ill, chronically ill, and critically ill pediatric patients and building upon the knowledge and experience gained in N314C. A developmental approach is used to assess hospitalized pediatric patients and formulate a comprehensive plan of care. Precepted clinical rotations in acute pediatric health-care settings provide the opportunity for advanced health assessment of the child, interdisciplinary collaboration, and comprehensive patient care management. All clinical experiences must occur in the acute care setting. Integrated principles of advanced pathophysiologic and psychosocial concepts will be applied to the care of acutely ill pediatric patients and their families.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Emphasis will be placed on evidence-based, family-centered, culturally-competent pediatric health care. The role of the pediatric nurse practitioner as an acute care provider in a variety of pediatric settings will be examined. Prerequisite: 6010, 7011, 7012, 7013, 7022, 7025, and 7045. Corequisite: 7031. [5] Summer
7205. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305B] This course builds on knowledge of advanced health assessment with a focus on co-morbid physical and psychiatric conditions commonly seen in psychiatric/mental health settings, with an emphasis on expanding proficiency in conducting histories and physical examinations. Communication techniques unique to the specialty population are emphasized. Systematic and organized health assessments related to identification of co-morbidity and interrelationship of physical and psychiatric conditions and treatments are explored. Experienced psychiatric mental health practitioners, psychiatrists and other related providers serve as role models in clinical practice. The course emphasizes the integration of health assessment strategies that are sensitive to the psychosocial needs of mental health clients. Pre/corequisite: 6010, 6011, graduate-level standing, admission to the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner program. [1] Spring
7212. Theories of Individual and Family Psychotherapy This course introduces a variety of conceptual models and theories related to the practice of individual psychotherapy and family therapy. Models of personality development and family dynamics provide a theoretical basis for understanding the development of psychopathology and selection of appropriate therapeutic strategies. Students will apply selected theories to case study material and evaluate the utility of theory-based research findings for specific client populations. [2] Fall
7215. Theoretical Foundations and Practicum for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Across the Lifespan [Formerly NURS 351] This course provides the theoretical content and clinical practice for assessing, diagnosing, and intervening in dysfunctional coping patterns and psychiatric disorders of individuals across the lifespan. The DSM5 (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) will be used as the basis for diagnostic nomenclature across the lifespan. Emphasis will be placed on the assessment, diagnosis and evidence-based treatment of mental health disorders.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Laboratory time concentrates on case-based simulation of initial diagnostic interviews, formulation of differential diagnoses and initial treatment plans. Clinical practicum provides students the opportunity to integrate theory and practice in supervised clinical experiences. Analysis of process dynamics and nursing interventions occurs during supervision. Pre/corequisite: 6011, 7211 or 7212. [3] Fall
7216. Child and Adolescent Psychopathology [Formerly NURS 355] This course builds on prerequisite knowledge of theoretical foundations of advanced nursing practice, mental health assessment, group and family therapy, models and theories of psychiatric nursing, neurobiology, psychopharmacology, research methods, pathophysiology, and clinical practicum with psychiatric patients. This two-credit course for post-master’s Adult PMHNP or Adult PMHCNS students reviews the major childhood disorders; looking at epidemiology, health and mental health promotion and prevention, risk factors, taxonomy, cultural factors, assessment issues specific to children and adolescents, use of rating scales, as well as evidence-based child and adolescent specific treatments. Individual therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, family-based interventions, psychopharmacological interventions, trauma-based interventions and combinations of these treatments will all be presented. Pre/corequisite: Admission to the PMHNP specialty level as a post-master’s student who holds current ANCC certification as an Adult Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) or Adult Psychiatric Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialist (PMHCNS), has a master’s degree or a post-master’s certificate in psychiatric mental health nursing from an NLNAC or CCNE accredited program documented by official transcripts, holds a nursing license in an eligible state, and receives approval from the PMHNP Program Director to be eligible to take this course. [2] Summer
7221. Neuroscience for Mental Health Practitioners [Formerly NURS 352] This course presents advanced concepts in neuroscience and the clinical management of targeted psychiatric symptoms, related to the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The course reflects current scientific knowledge of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry, and its application to clinical problems seen in a variety of settings.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course complements diagnostic and psychopharmacology content from 7222 to provide the advanced practitioner with knowledge related to clinical management of psychiatric illnesses. Pre/corequisite: 6010 and 7222 or permission of faculty. [3] Spring
7222. Psychopharmacology [Formerly NURS 353] This course presents advanced concepts in neuroscience, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the clinical management of targeted psychiatric symptoms, related to the psychopharmacologic treatment of various psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. The course reflects current scientific knowledge of psychopharmacology and its application to clinical problems seen in a variety of settings. This course builds on diagnostic and neuroscience content from 7221 to provide the advanced practitioner with knowledge related to clinical management of psychotropic medications. Pre/corequisite: 6010, and 7221 or permission of faculty. [2] Spring
7225. Practicum in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing with Individuals, Groups and Families [Formerly NURS 356] This course builds on the first advanced practicum course by expanding the student’s ability to identify and apply concepts, theories, and principles to complex groups. The student gains skill in implementing evidence-based practice interventions, case load management, and analyzing process dynamics with individuals, families, and groups so that patterns in self and others are identified accurately and with regularity. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will explore the PMHNP scope of practice through exposure to multiple roles and models. They will continue to refine diagnostic skills, pharmacological management, non-pharmacological management, and clinical reasoning. A focused needs assessment at clinical site will form the basis for implementation and evaluation of summer clinical project to improve some aspect of patient care or agency services. Prerequisites: 6011, 7205 and 7215; corequisites: 7221 and 7222. [4] Spring
7231. Population-based Mental Health Care Across the Lifespan [Formerly NURS 357] This course focuses on systems issues affecting clients across the lifespan who require special attention from the advanced practice psychiatric nursing role. Emphasis is placed on effective management of current practice issues without compromising the special needs of these populations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. These issues deal with the areas of effective evidence-based treatments, interface with families, developmental task resolution, legal/ethical decision-making, socialization, placements, co-morbidities in care and finances. This content is then conceptualized and operationalized relative to the advanced practice psychiatric nursing role and its interface with both the interdisciplinary psychiatric team of care and other health care professionals involved in the holistic treatment of the patient. Pre/corequisite: Admission to the PMHNP specialty level. Successful completion of 7215, 7225 clinical coursework. [2] Summer
7232. Advanced Psychopharmacology Explores advanced concepts related to the targeted clinical management of psychiatric symptoms and disorders across the lifespan. Applies knowledge of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and evidence-based practices to the management of complex patients with psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prepares the advanced practice registered nurse to evaluate available evidence to manage psychiatric disorders in persons with complex multimorbid psychiatric and physical health conditions. [2] Summer
7275. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship with Child and Adolescent Focus [Formerly N358C] This clinical course builds on prerequisite knowledge of theoretical foundations and provides a synthesis experience during which the student implements the role of the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner applying current evidence-based practice focusing on children and adolescent clients and their families. Additional prerequisite knowledge includes mental health assessment and differential diagnosis, group and family therapy, models and theories of psychiatric nursing, neurobiology, psychopharmacology, research methods, pathophysiology, and previous psychiatric-mental health nursing experience. The clinical emphasis is on assessment, diagnosis, and both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic intervention with children and adolescents with behavioral, developmental, and mental health disorders or at risk for mental illness within the context of their families and communities. Both direct (assessment, diagnosis, intervention) and indirect (consultation, case management, supervision) roles will be implemented. This preceptorship is designed for ANCC Certified Adult PMH-CNSs or Adult PMHNPs seeking post-master’s certificate as Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner prepared across the lifespan. Pre/Co-requisite: Admission to the PMHNP specialty level as a post-master’s student who holds one or more of the following current ANCC certification(s): Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (Adult PMH-CNS) or Adult Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (Adult PMHNP); has a master’s degree or post-master’s certificate in psychiatric mental health nursing from an NLNAC or CCNE accredited program documented by official transcripts, hold a nursing license in an eligible state, and receives approval from the PMHNP Program Director to be eligible to take this course based on Gap Analysis of transcripts.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Gap Analysis of transcripts documents completion of equivalent content and clinical for 6010, 6011, 6020, 6050, 6060, 6070, 7205, 7211 or 7212, 7215, 7221, 7222, 7225, 7231. N7216 Child/Adolescent Psychopathology is required co/pre-requisite. [3] Spring, Summer
7285. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship with Adult and Geriatric Focus [Formerly NURS 358B] This clinical course builds on prerequisite knowledge of theoretical foundations of advanced practice mental health nursing and provides a synthesis experience during which the student implements the role of the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner applying current evidence-based practice focusing on adult and geriatric clients and their families. Additional prerequisite knowledge includes mental health assessment, group and family therapy, models and theories of psychiatric nursing, neurobiology, psychopharmacology, research methods, pathophysiology, and previous psychiatric-mental health nursing experience. The clinical emphasis is on assessment, diagnosis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions with adults and geriatric clients with mental illness and for persons/populations at risk for mental illness, as well as primary prevention in mental health. Both direct (assessment and intervention) and indirect (consultation, case management, supervision) roles will be implemented. This preceptorship is designed for ANCC Certified Adult Psychiatric-Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialists and Child/Adolescent Psychiatric-Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialists seeking post-master’s certificate as a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner prepared across the lifespan. Pre/corequisite: Admission to the PMHNP specialty level as a post-master’s student who holds one or both of the following current ANCC certification(s): Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (Adult PMH-CNS) or Clinical Nurse Specialist in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (Child/Adolescent PMH-CNS); has a master’s degree or post-master’s certificate in psychiatric mental health nursing from an NLNAC or CCNE accredited program documented by official transcripts, holds a nursing license in an eligible state, and receives approval from the PMHNP Program Director to be eligible to take this course; 6011, 6020, 6010, 7221, and 7222; Gap analysis of graduate transcripts for completion of equivalent content and clinical for 7211 or 7212, 7215, 7225, 7231, 6070, 6050. [3] Spring, Summer
7295. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Preceptorship [Formerly NURS 358A] This clinical course provides a synthesis experience during which students implement the role of the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner. The focus is on assessment and intervention with persons with mental illness and persons/populations at risk for mental illness, and primary prevention in mental health. In addition to expanding on clinical aspects of the PMHNP role, the course introduces professional aspects including legal issues and mental health policy. Interprofessional collaboration with other health care providers is emphasized. Prerequisite: 7225. [4] Summer
7305. Advanced Health Assessment Applications for the Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner [Formerly NURS 305B] Advanced techniques used in assessment of the health status of women are taught. Students in the course have the opportunity to enhance and refine their assessment and diagnostic skills in a laboratory setting. Diverse applications are used to expand proficiency in history taking and health assessment techniques specifically directed at the health care of women. Pre/corequisite: 6011, graduate-level standing, admission to the specialty. [1] Fall
7310. Women’s Health for Advanced Practice Nursing I [Formerly NURS 327A] Consistent with the emerging definitions of women’s health and women’s health practice, this course examines a full range of health issues unique to women, focusing on obstetric and gynecologic issues. Women’s health specialization includes prevention across the lifespan, societal and political determinants of health, patient education, culturally competent care, and reconceptualization of women’s relationships with healthcare providers. This course will focus on the health assessment and maintenance of wellness including normal gynecologic issues, the childbearing family, and the low-risk pregnancy. Students utilize current research in women’s health and identify potential research opportunities in obstetrics and gynecology. Corequisite: 6011. [3] Fall
7315. Practicum in Women’s Health [Formerly NURS 328] This practicum offers opportunities for students to engage in specific components of advanced nursing practice during self-directed clinical experiences in collaboration with preceptors. Students will apply advanced knowledge of normal physiology, pathophysiology and psychosocial concepts to nursing care of women across the lifespan. Pre/corequisite: 6011, 6020, 7305, 7310, 7320. [4] Spring, Summer
7320. Women’s Health for Advanced Practice Nursing II [Formerly NURS 327B] Building on prior knowledge of experience with women’s health emphasizing wellness, students will begin to critically examine and evaluate evidence regarding deviations from normal gynecology and low-risk pregnancy. This course focuses on advanced nursing practice through the comprehensive assessment and management of disease processes and treatment of obstetric-gynecologic abnormalities. Concepts include disease and risk identification, culturally competent care, management, treatment, risk reduction, patient education, consultations and referrals. Pre/corequisite: 6010, 7310. [3] Spring
7330. Women’s Health Issues [Formerly NURS 326] In this course, students examine major historical, political and cultural influences on the health and health care of women in the United States. Students develop a woman-centered holistic approach to care, which is the central concept in their women’s health nursing practice.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Enrollment limited to WHNP and WH/AGPCNP students. [1] Summer
7395. Preceptorship in Women’s Health [Formerly NURS 329] The Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner specialty begins with the study of healthy childbearing women and gynecologic, well-woman care then continues with the study of high-risk obstetrics and deviations from normal gynecology. Emphasis is on health maintenance of women throughout the life span. This course prepares students for entry-level advanced practice as a Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner. Pre/corequisite: 7315, all core courses. [5] Spring, Summer
7999. THESIS [Formerly NURS 379] THESIS
Dcotorate of Nursing Practice Courses
8010. Evidence-Based Practice I: The Nature of Evidence [Formerly NURS 410] This course explores the philosophical underpinnings for nursing knowledge relevant to advanced nursing practice at the doctoral level. Methods by which nursing knowledge is generated, levels of evidence, nursing theories and theories from other disciplines informing nursing practice will be investigated. Students will identify and analyze concepts relevant to their topic of interest. Admission to the DNP Program or permission of instructors required. [2] Fall
8012. Informatics for Scholarly Practice [Formerly NURS 412] This course provides an overview of informatics and the role it plays in the delivery of evidence based care. With a focus on healthcare information technology’s (IT) contribution to data acquisition, this course will enhance the student’s understanding of the transformation of data into information and knowledge for scholarly practice and inquiry. A practical approach is taken to ensure students understand and can synthesize evidence based aspects of informatics practice including evolving trends such as the use of social media in health care, use of remote monitoring systems, simulation strategies, patient portals and patient generated health data. Driving this evolution is the involvement of the federal government via healthcare reform policies. This course prepares the student to optimize the use of clinical systems and technology tools to continue to advance practice and drive clinical transformation. [2] Fall
8014. Statistics in Health Sciences [Formerly NURS 414] This course provides the foundation for the critical evaluation and synthesis of published health sciences evidence including an overview of the appropriate use and interpretation of commonly used statistical techniques for generating that evidence. Students will analyze the research methods and reported statistical results in published literature with an emphasis on implications for advanced nursing practice decisions.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will develop plans for analysis of data collected with consideration of the alignment of project purpose with methods. Students will develop skills necessary to translate the statistical findings for stakeholders. Prerequisite: Admission to the DNP program or permission of instructors. [3] Spring
8015. Integrative Application of Evidence-Based Practice I [Formerly NURS 420] NURS 8015 is the first of the three integrative application courses that provides a progressive sequence to advance and develop the student into a practice scholar. This course offers the student mentored opportunities to initiate the development of the DNP scholarly project proposal and apply clinical scholarship to improve patient and population health outcomes. The student is expected to accrue a minimum of 125 hours in an area related to their practice inquiry to achieve the Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice competencies.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The student will integrate the academic achievements and evidence in a portfolio to reflect the application of advanced empirical, theoretical, leadership, and specialty knowledge and skills to clinical practice and systems level experiences. Prerequisite: 8010 (or seamless transition student). Corequisite: 8014 & 8042. [1] Fall, Spring
8022. Evidence-Based Practice II: Evaluating and Applying Evidence [Formerly NURS 422] This course will build on Evidence-Based Practice I by preparing DNP students to evaluate evidence designed to improve clinical outcomes related to their identified topic of interest, and to translate the evidence into practice environments. Prerequisite: 8010 (or seamless transition student). [3] Spring
8024. Epidemiology [Formerly NURS 424] Epidemiology focuses on the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course prepares the student to use epidemiological strategies to examine patterns of illness or injury in groups of people. Concepts of health, risk and disease causality are examined. Implications for development of data-based programs for disease/injury prevention and control as well as policy implications will be discussed. Corequisite: 8014. [3] Spring, Summer
8025. Integrative Application of Evidence-Based Practice II [Formerly NURS 430] NURS 8025 is the second of the three integrative application courses that provides a progressive sequence to advance and develop the student into a practice scholar. This course offers the student mentored opportunities to complete the DNP scholarly project proposal and apply clinical scholarship to improve patient and population health outcomes. The student is expected to accrue a minimum of 250 practice hours in an area related to their practice inquiry to achieve the Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice competencies.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The student will integrate the academic achievements and evidence in a portfolio to reflect the application of advanced empirical, theoretical, leadership, and specialty knowledge and skills to clinical practice and systems level experiences. Prerequisite: 8015; pre/corequisite: 8032 or 8034. [1] Spring, Summer
8032. Health Care Economics and Finance [Formerly NURS 432] This course covers basic economic theory, market drivers and restraints, health care finance and reimbursement, cost-benefit analysis and health care entrepreneurism. Theory and application are integrated throughout the course with a particular focus on the clinical role of the DNP within the contemporary health care environment. Students take either 8032 or 8034. [3] Summer
8034. Advanced Health Care Economics and Finance [Formerly NURS 434] This course addresses advanced application of economic theory, financial principles and financial modeling in the health care market. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Theory and application are integrated and aimed at preparing the student to assume an executive-level DNP role in large and complex health care organizations. [3] Summer
8042. Quality Improvement and Patient Safety [Formerly NURS 442] This course introduces students to improvement science and prepares them to design, implement and evaluate evidence-based quality health care practices for patient populations (individuals and aggregates) in acute, home and community settings. Working as partners in interdisciplinary teams, students will assess organizational culture, gather safety information, analyze data and translate findings into systems changes through action learning experiences within their own organizations. [3] Fall
8044. Management of Organizations and Systems [Formerly NURS 444] This course synthesizes leadership theory and organizational models within the context of the health care industry. Models of human resource management, change management, strategic planning, program development and implementation will be explored and applied. Based on these theories and models, the student will derive the DNP’s role in complex health care organizations. [3] Fall
8045. Evidence Based Leadership in Healthcare Organizations: Creating sustainable value in Health Care [Formerly NURS 445] This course is specifically designed for DNP students with demonstrated leadership competencies in organizational theory and behavior, leadership principles and practices, and organizational structure and culture through prior graduate education and career history.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. These experienced nurse leaders will apply evidence based leadership methodology towards creating sustainable value within their own health care environments. The DNP Leadership role is explored as an important catalyst for transforming traditional organizational decision-making and policy development to an evidence based approach. Prerequisite: 8010, 8032 or 8034. Corequisite: 8012 or permission of instructor. [3] Fall
8052. Health Policy [Formerly NURS 452] This course addresses health policy from the perspectives of evidence development, analysis and economic impact within a socio-political context. There is a secondary focus on the role of regulation within the U.S. health care system. The DNP contribution to health policy development is explored. [2] Spring
8054. Legal and Ethical Environment [Formerly NURS 454] This course provides a comprehensive analysis of the legal, regulatory and ethical environments that impact DNP practice. [3] Spring
8060. Obesity and Weight Control Part 1: Biology, Physiology and Epidemiology [Formerly NURS 460A] Nationwide and worldwide the obesity epidemic is growing, and this has led to a significant number of adults and children with obesity-related comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Awareness of this trend necessitates greater understanding of the link between adiposity and metabolic disease.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course will review the biological and physiological control of food intake and energy balance. The course will evaluate the metabolic pathways in which food and macronutrient intakes are utilized to provide energy and mechanisms by which body weight and health are influenced. Public health issues associated with obesity, energy and macronutrient intakes will be discussed as well as the adequacy of intakes in meeting recommended requirements at various life stages. Critical evaluation of peer-reviewed literature will be used to study prevention and risk factors of overweight and obesity, consequences with regard to metabolic syndrome and other chronic disease states, and public health issues.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. This course builds on undergraduate/graduate preparation in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. [2] Fall
8062. Management of Psychiatric Issues for the Non-Psychiatric-Mental Health Advanced Practice Nurse [Formerly NURS 462] Expand clinical competencies of Non-Psychiatric Mental Health Advanced Practice Nurses in assessing, evaluating, diagnosing, and treating mental health problems. This course will identify common mental health disorders seen in the primary and acute care settings including the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and diagnostic signs/symptoms of these disorders. It will also provide clinical practice guidelines, screening tools and evidenced based treatment approaches to provide a foundation for the clinician to identify and manage common disorders within their scope of practice and setting. Students will also recognize when psychiatric consultation or specialty care is indicated. The course is designed for the non-mental health provider and builds on undergraduate/graduate preparation in anatomy, physiology, biochemistry within a cultural context. Prerequisite: Specialization in a non-Psychiatric-Mental Health Advanced Practice Nurse role. [2] Not Currently Offered
8064. Scholarly Writing This course is designed to prepare students to be disciplined thinkers and effective communicators. The course explores general principles of analytical, expository, and argumentative writing and provides opportunity to review elements of the scholarly writing process; implement strategies to compose, review and proofread composition; critique one’s own work; and evaluate the writing of others. [1] Fall
8066. Curriculum Strategies for Health Professionals Education [Formerly NURS 466] (Required course for students who have received a Nurse Faculty Loan) This course introduces the student to the foundations of learning theory and learning styles. The impact of technology on learning practices and the appropriate use of technology to facilitate learning is emphasized. Students will create course units for effective learning and use a course management system. Overall curriculum strategies that integrate content, organization, informatics and sequencing of courses are discussed. Prerequisite: Graduate-level standing. [3] Fall
8067. Educational Evaluation for Learning in the Health Professions [Formerly NURS 467] (Required course for students who have received a Nurse Faculty Loan) This course provides an introduction to theoretical foundations and evidence-based strategies for assessment, measurement, and evaluation in nursing education. Course participants explore assessment of clinical and didactic learning across cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains for diverse learners, and are introduced to strategies for curriculum and program evaluation. Emphasis is placed on development of test items, interpretation of test results, evaluation of written assignments, and assessment of clinical skill performance. Discussion of legal, ethical, and social issues related to evaluation is included. Prerequisite: None, although completion of 8066 is strongly recommended. [3] Spring
8068. Online Methodologies for Nursing Education [Formerly NURS 468] This course prepares nurse educators to teach in blended, hybrid, and online environments. Students will learn effective course design and teaching/learning strategies for students in the online setting, including pedagogical approaches to facilitate social processes of online learning, collaboration, and engagement. Moving from theoretical to practical application, students will create an online learning module and evaluate a sample course for quality. Prerequisites: None, although completion of N8066 and N8067 is recommended. [3] Summer
8069. Lean Methodology in Healthcare [Formerly NURS 469] This course focuses on the analysis and application of Lean principles to improve a process or system. This course builds on basic quality improvement principles. Topics include a history of the Toyota production system including how to identify the eight wastes in health care, how to implement 5S, A3 concepts, data collection, and value stream mapping of current state and future state processes. [2] Spring, Summer
8070. Obesity and Weight Control Part 2: Management and Practice [Formerly NURS 460B] Weight management and treatment of overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome and other obesity related comorbidities requires multidisciplinary efforts. This course will build on the knowledge obtained in 8060 to provide the student with a comprehensive understanding of national and organizational guidelines as well as current evidence based standards of care. The course will review the role of various health care providers in screening and assessment of body weight and energy balance. Patient management issues specific to age groups across the life cycle will be discussed as well as differences in practice and management by health care setting.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course content will include use of the scientific evidence to evaluate current dietary, pharmaceutical and surgical treatment models, strategies to optimize outcomes as well as identification and management of adverse outcomes. [2] Summer
8071. Leadership in Interprofessional Practice: Critical Issues for Promoting a Culture of Safety [Formerly NURS 471] This course is designed to enhance students’ understanding of the management of unprofessional behavior, difficult interpersonal interactions, disclosure of medical errors and the role of each in building a culture of safety in the clinical practice environment. Using a case-based format, students will explore critical incidents, gain expertise in recognizing impediments to patient safety, and develop skills to rectify situations resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Students participate in faculty-guided, case-based group exercises emphasizing inter-professional team dynamics and emerge prepared to serve in leadership roles to create safer practice environments.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course builds on undergraduate and graduate preparation by engaging the student to gain new perspectives on how to expertly handle inter-professional discord, disclosure of medical errors, and improve communication in the healthcare team. Prerequisite: Graduate level standing. MSN students may enroll in the course with permission of the instructors. [2] Summer
8072. Fundamentals of Global Health: Addressing Global Health Disparities [Formerly NURS 470] This is a 3 credit hour elective course designed for graduate students interested in global health and will consist of seven units: Introduction to Global Health, Health Disparities, Health Care Delivery Systems, Evidence-based Practice, Non-communicable and Communicable illnesses, Trauma and Violence and Effective, Ethical Models for Global Health Engagement. The course will focus on best practices for allocating scarce resources and engaging in interdisciplinary global health work with diverse communities from a cultural, ethical and clinical perspective.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Students will engage in learning through readings, synchronous and asynchronous discussions, case studies and written assignments. This course is designed for students interested in caring for and empowering underserved populations locally and abroad. [3] Fall, Spring
8073. Genetics in Clinical Practice This is an elective course which focuses on the genetic basis of disease, genetic risk assessment and counseling, clinical genetics and management guidelines. The course will serve as the basis for the healthcare professional to holistically integrate genetic/genomics, epigenetics, and scientific concepts into personalized health care. This course is provided for doctoral and graduate students and offered during the spring, summer, and fall semesters. Students outside the School of Nursing should contact the instructor for permission to enroll. [2] Fall, Spring, Summer
8074. Foundations of Genetics/Genomics in Healthcare This is an elective course which focuses on the molecular basis of genetic disease, inheritance of disease and distribution of genetic diseases in populations. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The course aims to expose students in the health sciences to genetic/genomic concepts for integration in clinical care and research endeavors. The ethical, legal and social implications of genetic testing will be addressed along with the available technology and applications of data science. This course is provided for doctoral and graduate students and offered during the fall and spring semesters. Students outside the School of Nursing should contact the instructor for permission to enroll. [3] Fall, Spring
8076. Building a Professional Scholarship Trajectory This is an elective course for the Vanderbilt University School of Nursing Doctorate of Nursing Practice Program focused on building a professional scholarship trajectory. Students will develop a plan for pursuing scholarship initiatives. Pre-requisite: admission to the DNP program or permission of faculty. [1] Spring
8080. Independent Study [Formerly NURS 464] Individualized study with content related to the student’s practice and scholarly project. A contract is made between the student and faculty adviser with copies for the student, faculty adviser, program director, and student’s academic record. With the adviser’s guidance, the student is responsible for identifying study objectives and DNP competencies that are addressed within the course, and for specifying the primary DNP competency related to this study and learning activities and evaluation method. In addition, the student must complete the independent study agreement form that is available on the School of Nursing website. Prerequisite: Consent of faculty adviser. [Variable credit 1-4] Fall, Spring, Summer
8090. Palliative Care I: Overview of Palliative Care and Physical Suffering: Adv. Pain and Sym Man [Formerly NURS 465A] Overview of Palliative Care and Physical Suffering: Advanced Pain and Symptom Management. [Formerly NURS 465A] This is one of three didactic palliative care courses. This course is designed to provide graduate level nurses with the knowledge and skills important to provide excellent symptom management for clients of all ages living with advanced complex illness and their families. Paradigms are explored which link traditional models of symptom management to the broader and deeper context of advanced illness in palliative and hospice care in all developmental stages of life. This course seeks to engage the student in an inter-professional understanding of the history of death and dying and how this impacts the care of individuals and families with complex medical conditions. Learning activities concentrate on the complexity of chronic disease and emphasize evidence-based pain and symptom management for the advanced practice nurse.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Critically important constructs, such as transitional care and therapeutic communication will be deliberated. [2] Spring
8091. Palliative Care II: Multidisciplinary Roles in Palliative Care [Formerly NURS 465B] Multidisciplinary Roles in Palliative Care. [Formerly NURS 465B] This is one of three didactic palliative care courses. This course is designed to provide graduate level nurses with the knowledge and skills important to provide palliative and end-of-life care for clients of all ages living with advanced complex illness and their families. In particular, this course presents selected theory and practice components of loss, grief, death and bereavement for patients, families, and professional caregivers. The course builds upon the philosophy that individuals and groups have diverse spiritual and cultural needs and is designed to develop the knowledge and skills necessary for therapeutic and compassionate interactions with those facing serious illness and death. Learning activities assist students to identify and recognize their own feelings, needs, and issues regarding palliative and end-of-life care so they can effectively serve the multicultural needs of clients and families in a variety of serious illness and palliative care contexts. Clinical hours will emphasize a variety of learning activities engaging inter-professional learning in the care of the palliative care patient and family. Prerequisite: admission to post-master’s or DNP program or permission of faculty [2] Summer
8092. Palliative Care III: Palliative Care in Specialized Populations [Formerly NURS 465C] Palliative Care in Specialized Populations. [Formerly NURS 465C] This is one of three didactic palliative care courses. This course is designed to provide graduate level nurses with the knowledge and skills important to provide clinical care for clients of all ages living with advanced complex illness and their families. In particular, this course presents selected theory and practice components of palliative care in specialized populations, such as children, homeless, home bound, Veterans and older adults. The course is designed to continue to develop the knowledge and skills necessary for therapeutic and compassionate interactions with specific populations facing advanced illness and death. In addition, this course focuses on development of the APRN in leadership and education. Specifically, topics discussed are aspects of starting a palliative care service, measuring quality indicators, educating staff in caring for patients receiving palliative care and developing leadership qualities to guide the health care system to improve care to patients and families with advanced illness.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Prerequisite: admission to post-master’s or DNP program or permission of faculty. [2] Fall
8095. Integrative Application of Evidence-Based Practice III [Formerly NURS 440] NURS 8095 is the third of three integrative application courses that provides a progressive sequence to advance and develop the student into a practice scholar. This course offers the student mentored opportunities to implement their DNP scholarly project and disseminate the findings to improve patient and population health outcomes. The student is expected to accrue a minimum of 500 practice hours in an area related to their practice inquiry to achieve the Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice competencies. The student integrates the academic achievements and evidence in a portfolio to reflect the application of advanced empirical, theoretical, leadership, and specialty knowledge and skills to clinical practice and systems level experiences. Prerequisite: 8025. [2] Fall, Summer
8105. DNP Integrative Application of Evidence-Based Practice NURS 8105 is an integrative application course that provides a progressive sequence to advance and develop the student into a practice scholar. This course offers the student mentored opportunities to develop and implement the DNP project and apply scholarship to improve healthcare system, patient, and/or population health outcomes.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The student is expected to accrue a minimum of 500 practice hours to achieve the Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice competencies. Pre-requisites: 8010 and 8042. Co-requisite: 8022. This course is designed to be repeated for at least four terms. Students will earn zero credit hours in all but the final term of enrollment for the series, at which time students will be awarded four credit hours upon successful completion of the sequence. For the purposes of billing, academic load determination, and financial aid, this course will count for one credit hour in all terms of enrollment. [4] Fall, Spring, Summer
PhD in Nursing Science Courses
8302. Advanced Doctoral Seminar I [Formerly NRSC 302] This course consists of a series of seminars focusing on issues related to qualifying examinations, the dissertation, and continued development of a program of research. The topics are selected by course faculty and the students who plan to take the comprehensive examinations withing the next 9-12 months. Topics and experiences may include proposal development, grant applications, mock proposal reviews, qualifying examination situations, and dissemination of research findings.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. The seminar is required for two consecutive semesters. Prerequisite: Core Ph.D. course completion consistent with ability to complete the qualifying examination within 9-12 months after registration. [1] SPRING Spring
8303. Advanced Doctoral Seminar II [Formerly NRSC 303] This is the second seminar course in this series. Prerequisite: completion of NRSC 8302: Advanced Doctoral Seminar I. [1] SUMMER Summer
8304. Ethical And Legal Issues In Research [Formerly NRSC 304] This course provides an overview of issues related to the responsible conduct of research, including data management, vulnerable populations, authorship and publication, conflicts of interest and collaboration. Federal and institutional guidelines are included. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [2] SPRING Spring
8305. Informatics And Scholarly Inquiry [Formerly NRSC 305] This course provides an overview of informatics, a specialty that joins nursing science with information and analytical sciences throughout the data, information, knowledge, wisdom continuum. To take advantage of the current data-rich healthcare environment, scholars need to understand core informatics principles in order to use data for knowledge generation. In addition, this course familiarizes the student with technology tools to organize, interpret, and present data. [2 credits]. FALL
8306. Research Design And Statistics I [Formerly NRSC 306] This course focuses on understanding and applying the basic concepts of descriptive and relational research design and statistics. Students will be introduced to the full range of designs available to address research aims, moving from descriptive to experimental and quasi-experimental. After examining the relationship of research aims to research design, the nature of measurement, and causal inference, relevant statistical methods for visualizing, describing, and making inferences from data will be introduced. The focus will be on univariate and bivariate descriptive methods. Statistical computing packages will be used. Published research will be used to develop the student’s ability to evaluate the design and statistical methods used to describe health care phenomena as well as relationships among them. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3] FALL
8307. Research Design And Statistics II [Formerly NRSC 307] The course expands the concepts and applications of RD&S I including an introduction to longitudinal and randomized control design issues. Topics related to internal validity, experimental designs, and issues in comparing individuals and groups cross-sectionally and longitudinally will be detailed. Students will be introduced to issues in external validity and the relationships between internal and external validities. Parametric and non-parametric univariate comparative statistical methods used to analyze data resulting from cross-sectional and randomized controlled designs will be included. Students will be expected to generate and interpret results from statistical software and present relevant information in figures, tables, and text. Concepts will be studied within the context of evaluating published research. Prerequisite: completion of Research Design and Statistics I or consent of faculty. [3] SPRING
8308. Research Design And Statistics III [Formerly NRSC 308] This course is focused on advanced designs and multivariate statistical techniques. Design topics include advanced issues in external validity, field experimentation versus laboratory experiments, quasi-experimental and blended designs as well as special considerations for nested and complex longitudinal designs. Related statistical topics include advanced multiple linear regression methods (e.g. path and structural equation modeling), log-linear models and advanced techniques in survival and longitudinal data analysis. These methods and concepts will be discussed and evaluated through educational resources and published research using them. Students will have the opportunity to develop advanced skills in statistical applications most commonly used in their respective areas of interest. Prerequisite: completion of Research Design and Statistics II or consent of faculty. [3] SUMMER
8309. Special Topics In Quantitative Methods [Formerly NRSC 309] This course provides an overview of varied and timely topics in the field of quantitative methods. Exemplar topics may include issues in data collection methods such as using online or other resources, an examination of how quantitative data collection methods influence data management and analytic approaches, collection methods for physiological or psycho-social outcomes, and the benefits and drawbacks of using public data sets, conventional and new analytic techniques, as well as broader issues in the evolution of quantitative methods. Prerequisites: NRSC 8308, NRSC 8313; NRSC 8352 or NRSC 8382; or with permission from instructor(s). [2] FALL Fall
8310. Health, Health Care, Research, And Public Policy [Formerly NRSC 310] This course explores and critically analyzes theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding dynamic synergies between research, nursing practice, health care organization, and public policy and their impact on health. Strategies for dissemination, translation, and evaluation of evidence-based research findings to support health care practices and public policies to measurably improve health outcomes for selected populations and the student’s phenomenon of interest will be discussed. Local, national, and global implications will be explored. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [2] SPRING
8311. Role of Scientist In Academe, Community, And World [Formerly NRSC 311] This seminar course assists the student to develop a personal framework for behavior within academe, the scientific community, and the world beyond. Through readings and discussions, the student will explore a variety of viewpoints about the duties and responsibilities of an educated citizen scientist in an interdependent world. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [1] SPRING
8312. Programs of Research And Grantsmanship [Formerly NRSC 312] This course provides the foundational information necessary for developing a program of research. Focus is placed on acquiring practical skills necessary to develop a program of research, narrowing the focus of student’s area of research, and for basic grantsmanship. Focus is placed upon developing the knowledge and practical skills necessary to investigate an area of research interest and draft a research proposal appropriate to current level of career development needs and/or phenomenon of interest. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [2] FALL
8313. Theories of Science [Formerly NRSC 313] This course provides students with an introduction to the central theoretical and philosophical issues concerning the nature of science, the patterns of knowing and knowledge development, criteria for evaluating knowledge claims, and philosophy of science. The course will enable students to become knowledgeable about the forces affecting the development of knowledge and critical analyses of theories commonly used in nursing research. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [2] FALL
8350. Conceptual Foundations For Clinical Research [Formerly NRSC 350] Critical analysis of theories, concepts, and research related to the promotion, protection, and restoration of health across the lifespan at individual, family, and community levels. Emphasis will be on the individual level. Students conduct a critical analysis of existing and emerging scientific knowledge in a chosen field of study. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3] SPRING
8352. Measurement In Clinical Research [Formerly NRSC 352] This course examines the principles of measurement, sources of measurement error, and procedures used for critical evaluation of the psychometric properties of clinical measures including techniques for assessing validity and reliability. Selected measures, commonly used in clinical research and specific to student research interests, will be evaluated for psychometric properties and fit with a proposed focus of study. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program and completion of NRSC 8307 and NRSC 8350; or consent of faculty. [3] SUMMER Summer
8353. Designing And Testing Clinical Interventions [Formerly NRSC 353] Analysis of methodological, ethical, and practical issues related to the design and implementation of theory-based intervention studies. Students conduct a critical analysis of existing and emerging interventions related to their chosen field of study. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3]
8366. Curriculum Strategies For Health Professional Education [Formerly NRSC 366] This course introduces the student to the foundations of learning theory and learning styles. The impact of technology on learning practices and the appropriate use of technology to facilitate learning is emphasized. Students will create electronic elements for effective learning and use a course management system. Copyright and fair use issues are discussed. Overall curriculum strategies that integrate content, organization, informatics, and sequencing of courses are discussed. Students will design a learning program that integrates learning styles, technology use, and a course management system. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3]
8368. Contextual Nature Of Health And Health Behaviors [Formerly NRSC 368] This course explores and critically analyzes theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding the interaction of health and environment in affecting health by examining contextual factors that impact health and health behaviors of various system levels. Examines disparity (e.g., social and economic) as a determinant of health among individuals and sub-populations. Critique selected models of health, health behavior, community organization, and health care delivery and their usefulness to understand and impact selected health phenomena and various ethno-cultural populations and communities. Students critically analyze and synthesize the literature related to a selected phenomenon of interest. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty.
8371. Advanced Concepts in Nursing Education This course is designed to facilitate expertise in the application of advanced educational concepts, principles, and theories related to nursing education in the academic setting. The underlying premise for the value of such knowledge is that nurse educators encounter situations and issues that warrant systematic consideration, and reflection. Moreover, students will acquire competence in facilitating learner development and role socialization, review accreditation parameters for nursing programs, and explore various aspects and topics such as legal, ethical and socio-cultural factors related tot he role of the nurse educator. Prerequisites: 366, 367 [3] FALL
8377. Special Topics In Nursing Science Students will discuss research and current developments of special interest to faculty and students (may be repeated for credit). Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [Variable credit: 1-3]
8380. Knowledge Synthesis In Nursing Science [Formerly NRSC 380] This course provides a critical appraisal of the theoretical and empirical basis of nursing science. Theories and research generated to study phenomena related to nursing are evaluated and synthesized. Strategies for synthesizing extant knowledge in nursing are discussed. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3] SPRING
8381. Current Topics In Health Services Research [Formerly NRSC 381] This course assists the student’s development of expertise in knowing and applying resources (scholarly, organization, theoretical and methodological) to her/his health services research (HSR) foci as well as the position of her/his research interest within the current HSR environment. [3 credits]. SPRING. Prerequisite: enrollment in the PhD program or consent of faculty.
8382. Measuring Outcomes: Issues In Health Service Research Designs [Formerly NRSC 382] In this course, the student will develop expertise in the design, measurement, and analysis of studies employing the five generic outcomes of greatest interest in outcomes studies: satisfaction, cost-effectiveness, mortality, health-related quality of life, and morbidity. The student will also be expected to develop an overview including measurement and analysis plans for a condition-specific outcome. The impact of the researcher’s decisions regarding conceptual models, treatment definition, risk adjustment strategies, and the application of statistical techniques will be explored. At least one controversy attendant to each of the five generic outcomes will be debated in class. Prerequisite: completion of Research Design and Statistics I and II. [3] Summer
8383. Issues in Health Services Research Intervention Studies [Formerly NRSC 383] The student will develop expertise in the design and execution of intervention studies in health services research. Emphasis will be placed on the selection of interventions and the valid and reliable execution of the interventions through examination of issues such as treatment fidelity, intervention duration, location and interventionist expertise. The intervention categories studied include: labor, capital and processes (e.g., working conditions and work design.) Strategies of attending to the execution and analysis of multilevel, multi-organizational studies will be addressed. [3] Fall. Fall
8390. Independent Study In Nursing Science [Formerly NRSC 390] Individualized study and reading in areas of mutual interest to the student and faculty member. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. [Variable credit: 1-3] Fall, Spring, Summer
8394. Qualitative Research Methods [Formerly NRSC 394] This course introduces and explores qualitative research methods, including their theoretical and methodological foundations, and practical applications. Course participants will explore and pilot test one method in the context of their topic of interest. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [3] Summer
8395. Research Practicum [Formerly NRSC 395] This course provides students with exposure to and involvement in the research process. Learning activities are based on student need and interest and determined according to best fit with available faculty research programs. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [Variable credit: 1-3]
8999. Non-Candidate Research [Formerly NRSC 379] Research prior to entry into candidacy (completion of qualifying examination) and for special non-degree students. Prerequisite: enrollment in the Ph.D. program or consent of faculty. [Variable credit: 0-6] Fall, Spring, Summer
9999. Ph.D. Dissertation Research [Formerly NRSC 399] Prerequisite: Enrollment in the Ph.D. program and consent of faculty. [Variable credit: 0-6] Fall, Spring, Summer

Public health nurses (PHNs) work in schools, homes, clinics, jails, shelters, out of mobile vans and dog sleds. They work with communities, the individuals and families that compose communities, and the systems that impact the health of those communities. Regardless of where PHNs work or whom they work with, all public health nurses use a core set of interventions to accomplish their goals.

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Interventions are actions that PHNs take on behalf of individuals, families, systems, and communities to improve or protect health status.

This framework, known as the “intervention model,” defines the scope of public health nursing practice by type of intervention and level of practice (systems, community, individual/family), rather than by the more traditional “site” of service, that is, home visiting nurse, school nurse, occupational health nurse, clinic nurse, etc. The intervention model describes the scope of practice by what is similar across settings and describes the work of public health nursing at the community and systems practice levels as well as the conventional individual/family level. These interventions are not exclusive to public health nursing as they are also used by other public health disciplines. The public health intervention model does represent public health nursing as a specialty practice of nursing.

Teaching experience from a course of Public Health in the nursing program has shown difficulties in explaining public health issues and their relevance for nursing students. The Intervention Wheel (IW) for Public Health Nurses is developed in Minneapolis 2001 and has among others been used in Ireland, United Kingdom, and Norway.

Objectives

The Intervention wheel helps nursing students to connect theory and practice during their clinical studies and clarifies the meaning of public health work.

Results

First author visited Minneapolis for a meeting of developers of the IW which resulted in a change of the course of public health in the nursing program in Sweden. Before the nursing students (n = 250) leave for a clinical practice period within the elderly care they are given an introduction lecture and an additional lecture is given after return. There is a seminar to discuss their experiences and how this fits the model. After this the students continue clinical practice within health care centers with a written assignment about reflecting over the model from child health care, school health care, primary health care and elderly care. The assignments show that the model has helped the students to improve their understanding of the practical meaning of public health in caring and several other areas included in the nursés profession.

Conclusions

The IW is a well-developed tool to improve understanding of the practical meaning of public health in the nurse’s profession. The specific interventions are carried out at different levels, therefore it is easier for nursing students to see, regardless of the fact that most of the nurse’s practical work deals with individual issues, that the nurse profession represents a potential for health promotion at a population level.

Key messages:

The IW for Public Health is applicable in the curriculum of nursing students for improving the understanding of the importance and different levels of public health work.

A process for teaching and learning the connection between theory and practice

All nurses work to improve health outcomes and help monitor and manage disease. But community health nurses work in traditional public health settings and focus on the overall health of an entire community or multiple communities. Community health nursing is also known as public health nursing.

Roles and Responsibilities
“Nurses in community health work with diverse partners and providers to address complex challenges in the community,” Phyllis Meadows, PhD, RN, writes in the American Journal of Nursing. “Nowhere is this more evident than in current efforts to identify, reach, and treat people living with HIV and AIDS and in efforts to help the elderly effectively manage their chronic health problems and remain at home.”

Working with diverse populations requires cultural competency to “understand invisible factors in the community that promote health and prevent disease, such as assets, values, strengths, and special characteristics of the communities,” Pamela Kulbok, DNSc, RN, and others say in The Online Journal of Issues and Nursing. Community health nurses develop strategies and interventions that target entire population groups, families or individuals. Regardless of the practice setting, they focus on preventing illnesses, injuries or disabilities and promoting good health.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Responsibilities can include providing primary care, health education and care management to individuals and families in the community. Community health nurses can provide input to programs that address public health problems, develop public policy for health promotion and disease prevention, and evaluate health trends to help determine intervention priorities.

The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Response Act of 2002 added a new dimension to the profession and “catapulted community health nursing to the center of emergency response plans,” according to Meadows. “Community health nurses, especially those in public health settings, are now considered first responders—a role that traditionally belonged to law enforcement and emergency response professionals. In the event of a public health threat, community health nurses will organize and administer immediate care.”

Practice Settings and Education
A strength of community health nurses is their adaptability. They provide care in patients’ homes, at organized events and at agencies and institutions that serve people with specific health needs.

Settings include community health clinics, community nursing centers, schools, churches, housing developments, local and state health departments, neighborhood centers, homeless shelters and work sites. Vulnerable and high-risk populations are often the focus of care, which includes homeless individuals, the elderly, teen mothers, pregnant women, smokers, infants and those at risk for a specific disease.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Nurses wishing to pursue a career in community health nursing typically need a bachelor’s degree and clinical experience. Those with advanced degrees can pursue teaching and research opportunities.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Making a Difference in the Community
Community health nurses merge their clinical knowledge with community involvement and outreach efforts to respond to health problems and promote overall health. They rely on critical thinking, advocacy and analytical abilities to provide dynamic and adaptive care that impacts the community.

Alvernia University’s online RN to BSN Completion Program takes a community-first approach to developing nursing skills. Courses such as Health Restoration in the Aging Population and Health Promotion in Families and Communities focus on health restoration and promotion in the community, which is ideal for students wanting to pursue a career as a community or public health nurse. The program takes place in an online learning environment that can accommodate students’ work and personal schedules.

Public health nursing (PHN) practice is population-focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills. Early public health nursing roles extended beyond sick care to encompass advocacy, community organizing, health education, and political and social reform. Likewise, contemporary public health nurses practice in collaboration with agencies and community members. The purpose of this article is to examine evolving PHN roles that address complex, multi-causal, community problems. A brief background and history of this role introduces an explanation of the community participation health promotion model. A community-based participatory research project, Youth Substance Use Prevention in a Rural County provides an exemplar for description of evolving PHN roles focused on community health promotion and prevention. Also included is discussion about specific competencies for PHNs in community participatory health promoting roles and the contemporary PHN role.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Citation: Kulbok, P.A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., Meszaros, P.S. (May 31, 2012) “Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 17, No. 2, Manuscript 1.

DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No02Man01

Key words: community health promotion, community-based participatory research (CBPR), public health nursing, PHN competencies, nursing roles

[Public health nursing] roles involve collaboration and partnerships with communities and populations to address health and social conditions and problems. Public health nursing (PHN) involves working with communities and populations as equal partners, and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion (ANA, 2007). These and other distinguishing characteristics of PHN evolved in the context of historical and philosophical perspectives on health, preventive health care, and the professionalization of nursing. Specifically, these are roles that involve collaboration and partnerships with communities and populations to address health and social conditions and problems.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Public health nursing developed as a distinct nursing specialty during a time when expanding scientific knowledge and public objection to squalid urban living conditions gave rise to population-oriented, preventive health care. Public health nurses were seen as having a vital role to achieve improvements in the health and social conditions of the most vulnerable populations. Early leaders of PHN also saw themselves as advocates for these groups.

In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local and state health departments; neighborhood centers; parishes; school health programs; and worksites and occupational health programs. High-risk, vulnerable populations are often the focus of care and may include the frail elderly, homeless individuals, sedentary individuals, smokers, teen mothers, and those at risk for a specific disease.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Contemporary PHN practice, like the practice of early PHN leaders, is often provided in collaboration with several agencies and focused on population characteristics that cross institutional boundaries (Association of Community Health Nursing Education [ACHNE], 2003). PHN practice and roles are defined from,

…the perspective, knowledge base, and the focus of care, rather than by the site in which these nurses practice. Even though they are frequently employed by agencies in which direct care is provided to individuals and families, these nurses view individual and family care from the perspective of the community and/or the population as a whole (ACHNE, 2003, p. 10).
…PHN knowledge and competencies prepare nurses to take a leadership role to assess assets and needs of communities and populations… At an advanced level, PHN knowledge and competencies prepare nurses to take a leadership role to assess assets and needs of communities and populations and to propose solutions in partnership. Community- or population-focused solutions can have widespread influence on health and illness patterns of multiple levels of clients including individuals, families, groups, neighborhoods, communities, and the broader population (ACHNE, 2003).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The purpose of this article is to describe evolving roles in the specialty of public health nursing. A brief history of PHN provides a historical and philosophical background for current practice. A model for community participation with ethnographic orientation, and an exemplar of its use in a rural youth substance use prevention project, illustrates current advanced PHN practice. The article concludes with a discussion of essential PHN competencies, evidence that supports evolving PHN roles, and implications for contemporary public health nursing roles.

Brief Background and History of PHN Role
Prevention and curative care have been distinct concepts since ancient times. In Greek mythology, Hygeia was the goddess of preventive health, and her sister Panacea was the goddess of healing (Lundy & Bender, 2001). The notion of health care as healing, or treating those already sick, maintained dominance over preventive care for many centuries. During the mid-19th century however, new scientific understanding of transmission of disease enabled successful sanitation interventions that prevented disease on a large scale.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

To carry preventive care forward, district nursing evolved as the first role for public health nurses, and Florence Nightingale concurrently professionalized nursing as an occupation (Brainard, 1922, 1985). Evolving PHN practice required an understanding of how culture, economics, politics, psychosocial problems, and sanitation influenced health and illness and the lives of patients and families (Fitzpatrick, 1975). Public health nursing in the United States (U.S.), England, and other countries quickly grew to include working with vulnerable populations in diverse settings including communities, homes, schools, neighborhoods, and worksites.

The new public health nursing role struggled, and continues to struggle, with appropriate interventions that would achieve quick results, but also leave lasting improvements in the population. With the advent of preventive health care, a moral tension arose between giving resources to the needy, and teaching them how to meet their own needs. Nursing of the acutely ill fits more easily into a model of one-way flow of resources from nurse to patient (Buhler-Wilkerson, 1989). The new public health nursing role struggled, and continues to struggle, with appropriate interventions that would achieve quick results, but also leave lasting improvements in the population. The Christian principle of helping those who help themselves guided this tension, but could not easily resolve it (Brainard, 1922, 1985). Public health nurses were urged to balance “wisdom and kindness” (Buhler-Wilkerson, 1989, p.32). Giving free services or free supplies to the poor was seen as creating dependency and upsetting the natural social fabric of communities. Public health nurses have addressed this moral tension over many years with innovative solutions that seek positive health outcomes, as well as advocate for vulnerable populations.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

By the early 1900s, public health nursing roles extended beyond the care of the sick to encompass advocacy, community organizing, health education, and political reform (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2007). Several examples of exceptional PHN initiatives show how these roles improved the health of communities and populations. The visionary work of Lillian Wald’s Henry Street Settlement, started in New York City in 1906, evolved from finding and caring for the sick poor, to advocating and educating about the poor to other organizations. Wald expanded this mission to advocating for new federal agencies and a host of local improvements (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2011).

In the 1920s in Mississippi, Mary Osborne formed a collaborative between public health nurses and African-American (AA) lay midwives to improve perinatal mortality of AA women and babies (Lundy & Bender, 2001). In the 1960s in Detroit, Nancy Milio integrated community organizing, community decision-making, and PHN to develop a maternal-child health center that was highly accepted and even protected by the AA neighborhood during the “Detroit riots” (Milio, 1970). Public health nurses and other community professionals have continued to recognize the advantages of community participatory methods, including the potential for more effective intervention outcomes and capacity-building for long term benefit to the community (Savage et al., 2006).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Community Participatory Health Promotion Model
The community participation and ethnographic model (see Figure 1) is an innovative framework that demonstrates evolving public health nursing practice. It was developed, based on the work of Aronson, Wallis, O’Campo, Whitehead, and Schafer (2007a), by an inter-professional research team from the University of Virginia (UVA), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech [VT]), and Carilion Clinic (CC) (Kulbok, Meszaros, Bond, Botchwey, & Hinton, 2009) to address youth substance use prevention in a rural tobacco-growing county of Virginia. The community participation and ethnographic model builds on assumptions underlying community-based participatory research (CBPR) and encourages engagement of community members and trusted community leaders in processes from problem identification to project evaluation and dissemination. The CBPR approach is philosophically based in critical and social action theory; it builds partnerships with community members across social-economic status and focuses on community assets and resources rather than on deficits (Israel, Eng, Schulz, & Parker, 2005; Kretzmann & McKnight, 1997). CBPR seeks balance between community members and practitioners or researchers through shared leadership, co-teaching, and co-learning opportunities; it benefits from the expertise of both community members and practitioners or researchers (Anderson, Calvillo, & Fongwa, 2007; Isreal et al., 2005).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Figure 1. A Community Participation and Ethnographic Model
The community participation and ethnographic model is especially appropriate for public health nurses working with communities and populations because it provides a framework that builds upon local community knowledge. This enables public health nurses and their community partners to be sensitive to the ecological context and culture. The model is a useful guide for developing programs to promote healthy communities and health equality (Isreal et al., 2005). An ethnographically informed approach to community and population assessment and evaluation involves data collection and analysis that goes beyond adopting qualitative methods (Aronson, Wallis, O’Campo, & Schafer, 2007b). It is an approach that allows socio-cultural contexts, systems, and meaning to emerge through a collaborative process between public health nurses and community members.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Early ethnographic work in substance use prevention (Agar, 1973; Agar, 1986; Trotter, 1993) provided a foundation for the community participation and ethnographic model. Karim (1997) pointed out that the work of Agar (1973; 1986) and Trotter (1993) described the importance of acquiring local community knowledge of substance nonuse and use to provide a richer understanding of the health-related assets and needs of the community; circumstances and environment surrounding substance-related health and illness; community and population conditions; and attitudes, beliefs, and traditions directed toward substance nonuse- or use-related health risk behaviors.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Mapping enables community partners and practitioners or researchers to assess neighborhoods, cities, and/or counties to target interventions and to identify geographic trends over time. Unique strategies utilized in the community participation and ethnographic model include mapping, e.g., Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Photovoice, e.g., picture-taking by community members and practitioners or researchers. GIS is a tool that facilitates assessment and analysis of the ecological context of a population, as well as phenomena such as youth substance nonuse and use within the community (Aronson et al., 2007b). Mapping enables community partners and practitioners or researchers to assess neighborhoods, cities, and/or counties to target interventions and to identify geographic trends over time (Shannon et al., 2008).

GIS has been used to identify unmarried teen mothers (Blake & Bentov, 2001); intervention locations for syringe distribution (Shannon et al., 2008); and minority diabetes management (Gesler et al., 2004). Using mapping methods allows community partners and practitioners or researchers to identify specific areas for both assessments and interventions (Cravey, Washburn, Gesler, Arcury, & Skelly, 2001). With community input, maps can be generated depicting areas where community members, i.e., youths, parents, and community leaders, report protective- or risk-related factors; increased or decreased substance use; and potential intervention sites.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Photovoice, or picture-taking to create a photo narrative, incorporates CBPR assumptions and enables economically and politically disenfranchised populations to express themselves with greater voice. This results in more balanced power, a sense of ownership, development of trust, potential to build capacity, and a new sensitivity to cultural preferences (Castleden, Garvin, & Nation, 2008). Photovoice uses pictures taken by community members to promote effective sharing of beliefs, knowledge, and thoughts about a given topic.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Practitioners or researchers have used Photovoice to facilitate group conversations and develop action steps… Practitioners or researchers have used Photovoice to facilitate group conversations and develop action steps (Wang & Burris, 1994) in many ways. Examples include examining quality of life with AA breast cancer survivors in rural North Carolina (Lopez, Eng, Randall-David, & Robinson, 2005); engaging youths in health promotion (Strack, Magill, & McDonagh, 2003), and building community with youths, adults, and policy-makers (Wang, Morrel-Samuels, Hutchison, Bell, & Pestronk, 2004). The goals of Photovoice in the context of the community participation and ethnographic model are to (1) enable people to record their community’s assets and strengths, as well as concerns and areas for improvement; (2) promote critical dialogue and knowledge about important issues through group discussion of photographs; and (3) reach policy-makers.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Youth Substance Use Prevention in a Rural County: An Exemplar
The Problem

Adults and youths in rural southern states have some of the highest rates of cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use in the US (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). Adolescent tobacco use is highly correlated with use of alcohol and other drugs (Hair, Park, Ling, & Moore, 2009; Kulbok & Cox, 2002). Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use remain pervasive problems worldwide and are responsible for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality in the US (CDC, 2010). Healthy People (HP) 2020 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2010) pointed to the long-term health threat of adolescent substance use and the need to increase the proportion of adolescents who remain substance free. Many rural counties, however, have little knowledge of effective intervention strategies to prevent adolescent substance use. Healthy People 2020 (DHHS, 2010) recommended increasing population-oriented, primary prevention programs provided by community-based organizations to prevent youth tobacco, alcohol, and drug use.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The Project

A project involving the community participation and ethnographic model provides an exemplar of evolving PHN roles in community participatory health promotion. An inter-professional team, led by an advanced practice public health nurse and a human development specialist, is currently using these innovative, community participatory strategies, including GIS mapping and Photovoice, to design a substance use prevention program in a rural tobacco-growing county in the south.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Public health nurses and interdisciplinary researchers created a team with youths, parents, and community leaders, to complete a comprehensive community and environmental assessment of the county, its rural ecological context and culture; and, to review evidence-based prevention programs, as the foundation for a youth substance use prevention program that will be acceptable, effective, relevant, and sustainable by the rural county.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The inter-professional research team previously worked with youths, parents, and community leaders in a rural tobacco-growing county of Virginia on two collaborative research projects focused on youth tobacco prevention (Kulbok et al., 2010; Kulbok, Meszaros, Hinton, Botchwey, & Noonan, 2009). With first-hand knowledge of the challenges faced by this rural county when attempting to prevent youth substance use, the team proposed and received funding for a project (Kulbok, Meszaros, Bond et al., 2009) based on Healthy People 2020 (DHHS, 2010) recommendations for community-based, population-oriented primary prevention. The project aims were to:

Establish a community participatory research team (CPRT) in a rural county composed of youth, parents, and trusted community leaders;
Conduct a community and environmental assessment with the CPRT to identify ecological, cultural, and contextual factors influencing substance-free and substance-using adolescent lifestyles;
Evaluate the effectiveness of prevention programs with the CPRT in light of the community’s ecological, cultural, and contextual dimensions, health attitudes and behaviors, and on that basis develop a tobacco, alcohol, and drug use preventive intervention for this rural tobacco-producing community; and,
Pilot test the intervention to determine feasibility, acceptability, obtain preliminary effectiveness data, and refine the intervention for formal testing in other rural communities.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.
This youth substance use prevention project is currently in year three, the final stages of designing and testing a preventive intervention with the CPRT. The project, which is being implemented in stages that correspond to the aims, was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of Virginia and Virginia Tech. The inter-professional project team currently includes an advanced practice public health nurse and specialists from anthropology, architecture and urban planning, epidemiology, human development, and psychology. The team also includes public health nursing and psychology doctoral students. The community members of the CPRT, during the course of the three year project, included four community leaders, twelve youths, and eight parents. All of the adult CPRT members successfully completed research ethics education required by the Instuitional Review Boards.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The CPRT completed a comprehensive community and environmental assessment of the rural county to identify assets and needs related to five assessment domains: the community’s people and history, and its physical environment, idea systems, social systems, and belief systems. In order to gather qualitative data about substance use in this county, the team completed 14 individual interviews of community leaders and five youth group interviews, with a total of 34 youths, 14 to 18 years of age. The team also completed one group interview with seven parents. Analysis of the data from these multiple sources was integrated into a comprehensive community assessment by the CPRT. Guided by the community participatory and ethnographic model, and using innovative strategies (i.e., GIS and Photovoice) described in the previous section, the team used the GIS method to visualize and analyze the assessed data related to substance use.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Innovative Strategies for Community Assessment

A series of community assessment maps displayed socio-demographic information about teens in the community, as well as important “teen places” that were associated with substance nonuse and use (refer to Figure 2 for one hypothetical map of “teen places” with comments from CPRT members). The data used to create these maps was collected during monthly CPRT meetings held in the county and semi-structured interviews conducted by teams of CPRT members with community leaders, youths, and parents. Interview questions were developed by the CPRT to obtain community assessment data, and identify assets and needs. Public health nurses can use GIS mapping to visualize and analyze assessment data more effectively.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Figure 2
Figure 2. Map of “Teen Places” and Factors Related to Youth Substance Nonuse and Use (View full size figure [pdf])

Photovoice is another method public health nurses can use in the community assessment process. The CPRT utilized the Photovoice method as part of their community assessment and in response to semi-structured interview questions about their rural county. Five youths received instructions to take pictures as a visual means of answering the community assessment questions. Subsequently, their pictures were displayed on “picture boards” according to the five community assessment domains, i.e., people and history, physical environment, idea systems, social systems, and belief systems, and used to facilitate discussion during group interviews with youths and parents. These “picture boards” were displayed at the end of the youth and parent group interviews to enhance each group’s description of youth substance nonuse- and use-related factors in their community.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Analysis to Date

During the timeframe that the community assessment was conducted, the CPRT used nominal group process to analyze and select six relevant effectiveness criteria for a youth substance use prevention program in their rural county. These criteria were selected from ten established criteria on substance use prevention (Winters, Fawkes, Fahnhorse, Botzet, & August, 2007). The CPRT then examined three existing substance use prevention programs with effectiveness data to assess whether they met these criteria. Selection of a prevention program that meets the chosen effectiveness criteria and fits with the ecological context and culture of their rural community is a challenging process. It is ongoing at this time and involves consideration of multi-level factors identified in the community assessment process including culture, economics, politics, and psychosocial concerns related to youth substance nonuse and use.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Although the CBPR process is challenging, the resulting local knowledge and understanding of the unique characteristics of this rural county are providing direction in the selection of a program. For example, preliminary decisions made by the CPRT include: (1) the target population for the prevention program will be middle school-aged adolescents; (2) the most feasible and desirable setting for a prevention program is the summer 4-H youth camp held in the county; and, (3) high school students, 4-H camp counselors, may be the best “instructors” for the prevention program.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

This exemplar demonstrates the need for specialized knowledge, competencies, and skills utilized by public health nurses to successfully carry out complex assessments and interventions in communities. Emphasis on essential knowledge and skills in core PHN competencies and education helps to ensure that public health nurses are prepared to move their nursing practice into the future as leaders in community participatory health promotion and prevention.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Competencies for PHNs in Community Participatory Health Promoting Roles
[PHN] competencies and skills are requisite for public health nurses to serve in contemporary, evolving roles with communities and populations that face complex, multifaceted challenges… Public health nurses can acquire important knowledge, competencies, and skills to promote and protect the health of communities and populations by understanding and applying CBPR approaches. These competencies and skills are requisite for public health nurses to serve in contemporary, evolving roles with communities and populations that face complex, multifaceted challenges (Levin et al., 2008) such as public health threats that affect at-risk populations (e.g., lack of access to health care, emerging infectious diseases, poor environmental and living conditions, the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and the culture of substance use and abuse).

The nature of many threats is not unlike threats that faced PHN leaders in the early 20th century. They involve an appreciation of culture, economics, politics, and psychosocial problems as determinants of health and illness. The core competencies in PHN (Quad Council Public Health Nursing Organization [Quad Council], 2011) discussed below provide a guideline for PHN practice. By using CBPR methods, public health nurses can apply and enhance these competencies.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Analytic Assessment

Analytic assessment skills represent an important domain of PHN competencies utilized when applying community participatory health promotion strategies (Quad Council, 2011). Public health nurses should develop analytic assessment skills to pursue health promotion and prevention in partnership with communities facing complex challenges. Analytic assessment skills are used in community participatory approaches such as CBPR and provide opportunities to hear multiple voices from community insiders when conducting assessments (Andrews, Bentley, Crawford, Pretlow, & Tingen, 2007).

Public health nurses can enhance these skills by interacting with community members and using active communication to gain in-depth insights about the community’s assets and needs. Public health nurses can enhance these skills by interacting with community members and using active communication to gain in-depth insights about the community’s assets and needs. For example, when Andrews et al. (2007) used participatory methods to assess an AA population living in an impoverished neighborhood, they were assisted by community partners, advisory board members, and community health workers in interpreting the data through a series of the community forums. Therefore, they were able to reveal multi-level factors related to smoking patterns of that community by partnering with community insiders, which provided a foundation for developing effective smoking cessation interventions. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. In addition, as shown in the example of the CPRT work related to youth substance use prevention, public health nurses can apply analytic assessment skills by utilizing different, useful methods such as GIS, Photovoice, and individual and/or group interviews with active participation of community members.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Cultural Competence

Another important domain of PHN is cultural competence skills (Quad Council, 2011). This core ability enhances other competencies used by public health nurses when engaging in partnerships with communities and populations (Anderson & McFarlane, 2011). Cultural competence helps public health nurses understand invisible factors in the community that promote health and prevent disease, such as assets, values, strengths, and special characteristics of the communities (Anderson & McFarlane, 2011).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Public health nurses can improve their cultural competence through the use of participatory practices with diverse communities. Public health nurses can improve their cultural competence through the use of participatory practices with diverse communities (Marcus et al., 2004; McQuiston, Parrado, Martinez, & Uribe, 2005; Perry & Hoffman, 2010; Zandee, Bossenbroaek, Friesen, Blech, & Engbers, 2010). As mentioned previously, the community participation and ethnographic model is rooted in local knowledge, which can be derived from community members of differing race and ethnicity, with divergent attitudes, beliefs, and values (McGrath & Ka’ili, 2009). Listed here are several examples of research supporting acquisition of cultural competence skills using a community participatory approach:Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Perry and Hoffman’s (2010) study demonstrated that adopting a community participatory approach enabled them to develop a strategy based on American Indian youth culture to assess their level of physical activity by integrating community insiders in the process of assessment and program planning.
In a CBPR project to reduce substance abuse in a tribal community, Thomas, Donovan, Sigo, Austin, and Marlatte (2009) provided an example of how public health nurses could attain culturally sensitive knowledge of the tradition, history, and strengths of the community by encouraging full participation of advisory councils as “cultural facilitators” in their meetings (p.4).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.
McQuisiton and colleagues (2005) applied an ethnographic community participatory approach to reveal important cultural aspects, through the use of nominal group process in meetings, when assessing health disparities in a Latino population.
Zandee et al. (2010) described how applying CBPR enabled PHN students to better understand the cultural background of the communities in which they worked and thus improve their cultural competence by partnering with community health workers.
Program Planning

Program planning skills are used in community participation approaches to optimize community health promotion and disease prevention by public health nurses (Quad Council, 2011). In program planning for community health promotion and prevention, PHNs can plan evidence-based programs by using in-depth analytic assessment skills, and can implement programs more effectively by utilizing collaborations and partnerships gained from the CBPR method (Andrews et al., 2007; Hassouneh, Alcala-Moss, & McNeff, 2011; Marcus et al., 2004; Perry & Hoffaman, 2010).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Public health nurses can develop sustainable programs and build community capacity for health promotion by taking into account the ecological context of the community from an ethnographic assessment. Public health nurses can develop sustainable programs and build community capacity for health promotion by taking into account the ecological context of the community from an ethnographic assessment (Andrews et al., 2007; Perry & Hoffaman, 2010). Perry and Hoffman (2010) demonstrated how PHNs can incorporate findings from their assessment into program development by having lively discussions and distributing information to develop the tailored program in the community. Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. Marcus and colleagues (2004) showed how CBPR was used to develop a program to decrease HIV/AIDS in AA adolescents by creating a coalition between university-based investigators and church-based stakeholders. PHNs strategically utilized these partnerships to design and implement the program. These CBPR strategies were also utilized successfully to develop effective prevention and intervention programs (including both primary and secondary prevention programs) for cardiovascular disease prevention (Fletcher et al., 2011).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Community Dimensions of Practice

Community dimensions of practice skills focus on communication, collaboration, and linkages between public health nurses and the many stakeholders in a community (Quad Council, 2011). These skills are central to PHNs’ participation in CBPR and enable a focus on the ecological context in developing health promotion programs.

…PHNs can develop these skills by building community capacity and engaging community members and partners to design more effective, sustainable health-promoting programs. Public health nurses are able to gain these skills by creating collaborative partnerships with community leaders and stakeholders and identifying resources and solutions to problems through the CBPR method (Fletcher et al., 2011; Hassouneh et al., 2011; Marcus et al., 2004). These skills are enhanced by empowering community members to address their community’s health issues and increasing individual and community self-efficacy for health promotion throughout the CBPR process (Andrews et al., 2007; Marcus et al., 2004). Ultimately, PHNs can develop these skills by building community capacity and engaging community members and partners to design more effective, sustainable health-promoting programs.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Again, there are examples of research that used a community participatory approach to foster these community practice skills. Andrews et al. (2007) illustrated community dimensions of practice skills when partnering with community stakeholders to develop multiple levels of interventions using an ecological framework that enhanced sustainability. In another study, PHNs built partnerships with community stakeholders (Hassouneh et al., 2011) to increase trust and to better utilize community resources in applying interventions such as training. As shown in these examples, public health nurses can use CBPR to enhance partnerships and empower community members as participants by including them in the decision-making processes of assessment and program planning (Andrews et al., 2007; Hassouneh et al., 2011; Perry & Hoffaman, 2010).

Other Skills

The important skills of analytic assessment, cultural competence, program planning, and community dimensions of practice are critical for pursuing community health promotion goals as public health nurses become more widely involved in community participatory approaches. Other important competencies for the health promotion role are required for public health nurses, including communication; financial planning and management; leadership and systems thinking; policy development; and public health science (Quad Council, 2011). Public health nurses can further develop these skills by continuing to engage in community participatory practices. For example, PHN practice utilizes public health science knowledge, competencies, and skills by partnering with public health educators and researchers to develop evidence-based prevention interventions programs and thus contribute to nursing science. Community initiatives by PHNs can contribute to the development of policies based on in-depth evidence, assist community health advocates, and lead to improved long term outcomes (Fletcher et al., 2011).Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The Contemporary Public Health Nursing Role

…it is essential to emphasize collaboration and partnerships with communities and populations as contemporary PHN roles evolve… Public health nursing practice at the generalist and advanced or specialist level is competency based. PHN core competencies include knowledge and skills derived from the core public health workforce competencies, which were developed by the Council on Linkages (COL) (Council on Linkages, 2010). These PHN core competencies include the three tiers of practice used in the COL competencies, i.e., Tier 1 — the PHN generalist; Tier 2 — the PHN specialist or manager; and, Tier 3 — the PHN organization leader or executive level administrator (Quad Council, 2011). These core competencies are necessary to implement community participatory health promoting roles.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers. In addition, it is essential to emphasize collaboration and partnerships with communities and populations as contemporary PHN roles evolve in the context of Healthy People 2020 (DHHS, 2010), the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (ACA) (U.S. House of Representatives, 2010), and the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council (Executive Order 13544, 2010). These national initiatives provide new opportunities for emerging roles in PHN focused on community health promotion and prevention practices.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

…national initiatives provide new opportunities for emerging roles in PHN focused on community health promotion and prevention practices. The community participation and ethnographic model includes important long-standing PHN processes, as well as innovative strategies that public health nurses can utilize in community assessment and prevention program development. Using PHN core competencies (Quad Council, 2011) and guided by the community participation and ethnographic model, public health nurses can empower communities and populations to become more involved in community health promotion and prevention. This empowerment can reduce health threats and increase health equity.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

As the roles of public health nurses as advocates, collaborators, educators, partners, policy-makers, and researchers evolve in the area of community health promotion and prevention, greater emphasis on community participatory and ethnographic approaches in PHN education will provide benefits to students at the generalist and advanced practice levels (Zandee et al., 2010). Moreover, basic and advanced public health nursing practice roles, which emphasize inter-professional collaboration, community participatory strategies, and the importance of local knowledge to address community health problems, will continue to contribute to improved community and population health outcomes.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Acknowledgement: This project was supported by a grant from the Virginia Foundation for Healthy Youth (formerly the Virginia Youth Tobacco Settlement Foundation) 2009-2012.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Authors
Pamela A. Kulbok, DNSc, RN, PHCNS-BC, FAAN
E-mail: pk6c@virginia.edu

Dr. Kulbok is a Professor of Nursing and Public Health Sciences at the University of Virginia (UVa). She is Chair of the Department of Family, Community, and Mental Health Systems and Coordinator of the Public Health Nursing Leadership track of the MSN Program. Dr. Kulbok is the principal investigator of an inter-professional, cross-institution, community-based participatory research project funded by the Virginia Foundation for Healthy Youth to design a substance use prevention program with youth, parents, and community leaders in a rural tobacco-growing county. While at UVa, she has co-directed two advanced education nursing (AEN) training grants: the first was focused on distance education and leadership in Health Systems Management (HSM) and Public Health Nursing (PHN), the second used distance technology to prepare rural nursing leader in HSM, PHN, and Psychiatric Mental Health. Prior to her faculty appointment at UVa, she was a faculty member at the Catholic University of America and the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she was project director of community/public health nursing AEN training grants. Dr. Kulbok currently serves as the Chair of the American Nurses Association (ANA) workgroup to revise the Public Health Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. She previously served as President-Elect and President of the ACHNE, and member and Chair of the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations. She also completed a four-year term on the ANA, Congress of Nursing Practice and Economics. Dr. Kulbok holds a BS in Nursing and an MSN in Community Health Nursing from Boston College. She earned her doctorate at Boston University and did postdoctoral work in psychiatric epidemiology at Washington University in St. Louis.

Esther Thatcher, MSN, RN
E-mail: ejm4p@virginia.edu

Ms. Thatcher is a PhD student at the University of Virginia (UVa) School of Nursing. She also received her BSN and MSN in Community/Public Health Leadership at UVa. Ms. Thatcher’s research interest is community-level interventions to prevent and reduce chronic disease in underserved communities. Her planned doctoral research is to examine the community food environment in an economically disadvantaged rural Appalachian area, to identify influences on food choices that may lead to obesity and other health conditions. Ms. Thatcher previously worked as a public health nurse in a local health department, as a care coordinator in a primary care practice, as an inpatient nurse in a hospital, and as a rural outreach nurse to Hispanic migrant farmworkers. She also volunteered in health programs in Latin America, including the Pan-American Health Organization’s Healthy Communities program. As a BSN student, Ms. Thatcher was a founding member of Nursing Students Without Borders, an organization that connects nursing students to international communities.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Eunhee Park, BSN, RN
E-mail: ep9j@virginia.edu

Ms. Park is a BSN to PhD student at the University of Virginia (UVa) School of Nursing. She is currently pursuing her Master’s degree specializing in Public Health Nursing Leadership (PHNL). Ms. Park’s research interest is youth health promotion in vulnerable populations and nursing education to enhance leadership among public health nurses. She is working with in a community based participatory research team to design a youth substance use prevention program in a rural county. Ms. Park previously worked as a staff nurse at the Pediatric Cardio Surgical Unit, Emergency Room, and Maternity Unit in Seoul National University of Hospital, South Korea. She earned her BSN degree at Kyungpook National University in South Korea.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Peggy S. Meszaros, PhD.
E-mail: meszaros@vt.edu

Dr. Peggy S. Meszaros is the William E. Lavery Professor of Human Development and Director of the Center for Information Technology Impacts on Children, Youth and Families. She has received degrees from Austin Peay State University, the University of Kentucky, and University of Maryland, College Park. During more than 30 years of work in higher education, her research interests have focused on positive youth development, technology impacts, human ecological, family, and gender issues. She has published over 90 scholarly articles, 3 books, numerous book chapters and received over six million dollars in external research grants. She is currently the Principal Investigator (PI) on the National Science Foundation funded research grant, Appalachian Information Technology Extension Services, the PI on the Virginia Healthy Youth Foundation research grant The Development and Implementation of a Family Based Substance Abuse Prevention Model for Youth Receiving Behavioral Health Services, and Co-PI on Partnering with Youth, Parents, and Community Leaders to Develop an Intervention for Substance Abuse in a Rural Community. Dr. Meszaros has received many honors and awards, including being named a Truman Scholar Mentor at Oklahoma State University and induction into the University of Kentucky Distinguished Hall of Fame.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

Abstract As the devastating impact of many public health problems becomes more evident nationwide, a need exists for effective programs aimed at community‐oriented health promotion. Escalating health care costs, however, severely limit available health care resources, threatening the demise of many public health efforts. During this time of imminent reform in our national health care system, it is imperative for community health nurses to elicit support by demonstrating the efficacy of their interventions (Oda & Boyd, 1987). This article describes services provided by community health nurses and documents the effectiveness of these interventions based on available literature. The programs reviewed represent community health nursing strategies developed in response to the needs of high‐risk families, geographic communities, and vulnerable population groups. Both descriptive analyses and outcome‐evaluation studies are used to support the effectiveness of home‐based and community‐centered community health nursing interventions. Recommendations eliciting support for community health nursing practice from legislators, policy makers, practice agencies, professional organizations, educators, and research institutions are included.

The MSPH is an academic research degree designed for students who wish to prepare for further study at the doctoral level or to prepare for research or technical positions in government, industry, academia, or private institutions. Studies will include many of the core disciplines included in the MPH degree with an additional emphasis on advanced research methods and quantitative analysis skills.

We are committed to transmitting the skill sets necessary to conduct effective public health research to all our students, understanding that such research may take place in academic, governmental, the private sector, and international settings. Experience in public health research often involves similar skill sets as those needed by public health practitioners.Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

The Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH) degree is accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).

Upon completion of the Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH) degree, all graduates will be able to:Community Health Nursing Intervention Strategies Assignment Papers.

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