Describe a stressor currently impacting you

Describe a stressor currently impacting you

Describe a stressor currently impacting you

We have been discussing and reading about the relationship between the mind and body. I would like for you to each write a response to the following two questions. Please reference the syllabus for instructions on format. Your critical thinking answers must reflect concepts from the classes held up to date and your general knowledge as well. If relevant, you can also include your or others’ life experience to defend your arguments. Your response should be 2 pages.  Describe a stressor currently impacting you

(1) Describe a stressor currently impacting you. Please specify your understanding of the origin of the stressor (2 POINTS), any factors that seem to make it worse — including factors in your natural, work, school, family, or social environment (2 POINTS), and how it impacts your daily life (2 POINTS).

(2) Describe any physical symptoms associated with the stressor. Please be specific and identify the system you feel is impacted (e.g., your immune system, muscle tension, appetite, etc.) (3 POINTS). Describe techniques you might use to lessen the physical impact of the stressor (3 POINTS).

 

 

Stress Management for Life

Chapter 4

The Mind/Body Connection

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Opening Questions

How do my thoughts and feelings change my physical condition?

 

Why do I get sick after I go through a stressful time?

 

 

What is the placebo effect and does it really work?

 

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Student Objectives

Describe the role of stress in disease

 

 

 

Discuss how stress can affect body systems including cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, and immune systems

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Student Objectives

Explain the concept of psychoneuroimmunology

 

 

Explain the placebo effect as an example of the power of the mind over the body

 

 

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

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What is going on in your mind determines what is happening in your body

The Mind/Body Connection

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

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Encompasses both our emotional and mental health

 

Psychologically healthy people develop awareness and control over their thoughts and feelings

Psychological Health

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

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A complex physiological process, the stress response, always starts with a single thought!

Psychological Health

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

FYI

– 70-80% of all visits to healthcare providers are for stress-related and stress induced illnesses

– Stress contributes to 50% of all illnesses in the U.S.

– The cost of job stress in the U.S. is estimated to be $200 billion annually

Impact of Stress

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2000 (Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service).

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

“Healthy People 2010” reports the continuing trend that health problems related to stress are among the most pressing concerns in public health

The Role of Chronic Stress in Disease

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Stress can impact health either directly by way of physiological changes in the body, or indirectly through a change in the person’s behavior

Direct and Indirect Effects of Chronic Stress

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

The cumulative physiological wear and tear on the body that results from ongoing adaptive efforts to maintain homeostasis in response to stressors

Allostatic Load

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Medium Chronic Stress

Muscle tension and pain

Headaches

Fatigue

Upset Stomach

Difficulty Sleeping

Cold or Sore Throat

 

 

Effects of Medium-Term Chronic Stress

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Research Highlight

The Cold, Hard Facts

Psychologist Sheldon Cohen’s research found:

 

– Happy, relaxed people are more resistant to illness than those who tend to be unhappy or tense

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Research Highlight

– Serious work-related/personal stress that lasts at least a month increases the chances of catching a cold

 

– Rates of respiratory infection/colds increased with the extent of psychological stress the person had experienced in the previous year

 

 

Source: “Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold,” by S. Cohen, D. Tyrrell, and A. Smith, New England Journal of Medicine, 325 (1991): 606–612.

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

FYI

Stressful events that cause the release of certain hormones can make you forget things you know you should know

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

More antibodies to fight infection on positive days, less antibodies to fight infection on rough days

 

Role of the Immune System

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Mental stress increases oxygen demand because of elevated blood pressure and heart rate

 

Vascular resistance and coronary artery constriction decrease blood supply

 

 

Stress and the Heart

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Blood tends to clot more easily

 

Chronically high levels of cortisol may affect cardiac health by promoting inflammation that causes heart attacks

 

 

Stress and the Heart

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Stress hinders the immune system’s ability to produce and maintain lymphocytes and natural killer cells

 

 

Stress and the Immune System

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Prolonged stress can age people prematurely

 

Cells of people under high stress aged to equivalent of 9 to 17 years more than the cells of people under little stress

 

 

 

Stress and Aging

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Research Highlight

Chronic Stress and Immunity

119 men and women who were dealing with the stress of caring for a spouse with dementia compared with 106 men and women of similar age and health status who did not serve as caregivers

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Research Highlight

Results:

Blood tests showed a dramatic increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the caregivers compared to the non-caregivers

 

Overproduction of IL-6 has been associated with the development or progression of a number of medical conditions

 

 

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Research Highlight

Results:

Increased levels of IL-6 persisted for several years even after spouse of caregivers had died

 

Suggests that stress may increase the risk of many typical age-associated diseases by altering immune response

 

 

 

Source: Chronic Stress and Age-related Increases in the Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-6, by J. Kiecolt-Glaser, K. Preacher, R. MacCallum, C. Atkinson, W. Malarkey, and R. Glaser, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (USA), July 2, 2003.

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Chronic inflammation plays a role in diseases from cancer to depression to Alzheimer’s

 

Stress is proving to be a key player

 

 

Stress and Inflammation

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Fat cells that accumulate near organs in the abdominal cavity respond to stress hormones you produce when you’re frazzle or overtired by producing their own chemicals

 

 

 

Stress and Inflammation

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Long-Term Chronic Stress

Cortisol binds to receptors on these fat cells, setting off a process that promotes the storage of fat and increases the number of fat cells

 

These extra cells then produce more chemicals that increase inflammation

Stress and Inflammation

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Psychosomatic Illness – conditions that have a mind and body component

How the Mind and Body Communicate

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Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

Placebo effect – a phenomenon created by a person’s belief that he or she will benefit from an intervention

 

The Placebo Effect

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Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Seeks to understand the complex communications between and among the nervous system, the psyche, and the immune system, and their implications for health

 

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

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In Class Activity

Body Signals

With a Partner: Think about a health concern your or someone you know might be experiencing right now.

– What is the condition?

– How is stress related to the problem?

 

I will select a few groups from each row to present

 

H180: Stress Prevention & Management

Wednesday, 9/11/2014

Psychophysiological conditions have a mind and body component that is supported by science

 

Chronic stress is a contributing factor to many illnesses and diseases

 

Key Points

Medium-term stress results in an array of unhealthy signs and symptoms

 

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Conditions that have a mind and body component are called psychosomatic or psychophysiological

Key Points

Long-term stress may result in serious health problems

 

The placebo effect demonstrates the power of the mind on the body

 

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Key Points

Psychoneuroimmunology is the field of study that seeks to understand the complex communications between the nervous system, the psyche, and the immune system, and their implications for health

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Wednesday, 9/11/2014

 

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