Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment

Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment

Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment

Sample Solution

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by dysregulation of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. The primary feature of this disorder is elevation in blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), resulting from either a defect in insulin secretion from the pancreas, a change in insulinaction, or both. Sustained hyperglycemia has been shown to affect almost all tissues in the body and is associated with significant complications of multiple organ systems, including the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment.

Glucose appears in the urine (glycosuria) because the kidney excretes the excess glucose to make the blood glucose level normal. Glucose excreted in the urine acts as osmotic diuretic and causes excretion of increased amount of water, resulting in fluid volume deficit or polyuria.

Assessment Nursing Diagnosis Planning Nursing Interventions Rationale Evaluation
Subjective: (none) Objective: · elevated     temperature of 38.4°C/axilla · increased urine output. · sweating of the skin · thirst · exhaustion · weight loss · dry skin or  mucous membrane Deficient Fluid Volume r/t intracellular DHN 2° the DM II Short Term:After 3° of NI, patient shall have verbalized understanding of causative factors and purpose of individual therapeutic interventions and medications. Long Term: After 2 days of NI, the patient shall have maintained fluid volume at a functional level as evidenced by individual good skin turgor, moist mucous membrane and stable vital signs. Establish rapport Take and record vital signs Monitor the temperature Assess skin turgor and mucous membranes for signs of dehydration Encourage the patient to increase fluid intake Administer IVF as ordered by the Doctor Administer anti-pyretic as prescribed by the Doctor. Friendly relationship with patient and to be able to each other’s concern To obtain baseline data To monitor changes in temperature Dry skin and mucous membranes are signs of dehydration To replace fluid loss and prevent dehydration To replace electrolytes and fluid loss To decrease body temperature and will have less occurrence of dehydration. Short Term:After 3° of NI, patient will have verbalized understanding of causative factors and purpose of individual therapeutic interventions and medications. Long Term: After 2 days of NI, the patient will have maintained fluid volume at a functional level as evidenced by individual good skin turgor, moist mucous membrane and stable vital signs

Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

Due to decrease of lack of insulin in the body, the glucose level continuously rises because glucose can’t be utilized without the presence of insulin. Glucose is the source of energy, while insulin is the vehicle to transport glucose to the body tissues. Because of decrease insulin level in the blood stream, the cells starved, leading to alteration of metabolism. The body needs glucose for metabolism; there will be a breakdown of energy reserved from adipose tissue, muscles and liver (glucagons). This will result to weight loss. But the energy breaks down, the glucose level continuously increase because there is less amount of insulin. The body tissues need to be fed, this will lead to polyphagia and polydipsia because the tissue are not being fed and need glucose for metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment.

Assessment Nursing Diagnosis Planning Nursing Interventions Rationale Evaluation
Subjective:Æ Objective: Pt. manifested: – poor muscle tone – generalized weakness – increased thirst – increased urination -polyphagia Pt. may    manifest: – loss of weight Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirement r/t insulin deficiency Short Term: After 3° of NI, patient shall have verbalized understanding of causative factors when known and necessary interventions and identified diabetic client. Long Term: After 1-4 months of NI, the patient shall have demonstrated weight gain toward goal. Diabetes Mellitus – Deficient Fluid Volume Assignment Establish rapport Ascertain understanding of individual nutritional needs Discuss eating habits and encourage diabetic diet as prescribed by the Doctor Document actual weight, do not estimate. Note total daily intake including patterns and time of eating. Consult  dietician/physician for further assessment and recommend-dation regarding food preferences and nutri-tional support Friendly relationship with patient and to be able to each other’s concern To determine what information to be provided to client/SO – To achieve health needs of the patient with the proper food diet for is/her disease – Patient may be un aware of their actual weight or weight loss due to estimating weight. – To reveal changes that should be made in client’s dietary intake – For greater understanding and further assessment of specific foods. Short Term: After 3° of NI, patient will have verbalized understanding of causative factors when known and necessary interventions and identified diabetic client. Long Term: After 1-4 months of NI, the patient will have demonstrated weight gain toward goal.

Fatigue

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. In type 2 diabetes, people have decreased sensitivity to insulin and impaired beta cell functioning resulting in decreased insulin production. Glucose derived from food cannot be stored in the liver thereby remaining into the bloodstream. The beta cells of the islets of Langerhans release glucagon which stimulates the liver to release the stored glucose. After 8 – 12 hours, the liver forms glucose from the breakdown of noncarboghydrate substances, including amino acids resulting to muscle wasting which results to weakness.

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