Benchmark – Part A: Population Health Research and PICOT
Grand Canyon University : NUR-550
Benchmark – Part A: Population Health Research and PICOT
Over the years, the racial disparity in hypertension and its related outcomes has been significantly linked with the African Americans who have a higher risk than their counterparts. According to a study conducted by Waldron et al. (2019), the prevalence of hypertensive crisis and emergencies was predominantly high among African American urban populations, five times the United States average. The differences are usually contributed by the inequality in access, quality of care, and healthcare coverage among the minority groups.
Hypertension is a common health issue in the United States, affecting millions of individuals. According to the CDC (2020), nearly half of adult Americans have the condition or are on medication. In 2018, about half a million deaths in the country included high blood pressure as one of the primary causes. EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
Besides, it has been considered one of the common health issues among non-Hispanic black adults (54%) than the white adults, Asian adults, or Hispanic adults at 46%, 39%, and 36%, respectively (CDC, 2020). Furthermore, evidence suggests that the use of recommended blood pressure medication to promote control is lower in African Americans, which increases their risk of developing complications. Also, more men are affected than women.
Health disparities are a major health concern among African Americans. Studies indicate that they are three times more likely to die due to preventable heart condition and stroke than the whites (Ferdinand et al., 2017). One of the major contributing factors to the racial disparity is the non-adherence to medications, which has been linked to social determinants of health. It is the leading cause of the inadequate control of hypertension, leading to chronic kidney disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, hypertension is a health issue that needs to be addressed in the African American population to reduce complications and promote their well-being.
Management of the Population Health
The adequate management of the population health requires incorporating various elements, including the nursing science, health determinants, epidemiology, genetic and genomic characteristics. In nursing science, the primary aim is to promote patient recovery and deliver high-quality, safe, and effective services (Grady, EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion 2017).
Therefore, the interventions that address health disparities in African Americans with hypertension need to be focused on social determinants. Besides, nursing science promotes proper management of health issues and the provision of patient-centered care, which is likely to help in addressing issues of non-adherence. According to Grady (2017), nursing science plays a significant role in bringing together health determinants and developing strategies that will promote the health of the population.
The major health determinants among African Americans are social, economic, and educational factors. This includes the social class, gender, and geographic location of the individual. Social determinants of health have been linked significantly to conditions such as heart diseases and diabetes (Grady, EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion 2017).
Besides, social determinants impact access to healthcare services, limiting the health-seeking behavior of African Americans because a significant number still live below the poverty line. Other issues that have an impact on the health outcome of individuals include their beliefs, fear and stigma, poor perception of the health threat, and the patient attitude towards available interventions EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
Apart from that, epidemiology has played a significant role in characterizing a population’s health status and threat variables that may require interventions. Studies indicate that the prevalence of hypertension worldwide has significantly increased despite the wide distribution and use of antihypertensive medication (Waldron et al., EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion 2019).
Therefore, epidemiology will help identify individuals at risk of developing high blood pressure, help in monitoring the progress of the disease, specify areas that need health care attention and evaluate the impact of the condition on the population. These affect how the services are offered to the population, including the urgency, the involvement of effective interventions and the development of programs to address the health issue.
Also, the genomic and genetic studies have provided more data that will help improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension. Besides, the complexity of blood pressure regulation has limited the number of known pharmacological pathways that can be utilized to target hypertension control (Burrello et al., EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion 2017).
However, there is a possibility that technological advancement could help in defining the genetic architecture of hypertension, which will then lead to the development of effective interventions. Apart from that, it will help predict individuals who are likely to develop hypertension and possible therapies that will respond well. EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
Effective management of hypertension among African Americans requires a collaborative to help in addressing most of their challenges. This includes health education provision concerning the risk of high blood pressure, its complication, strategies that can be used to control it, and the importance of medication adherence. It is also important to carry out promotional activities and awareness campaigns to sensitize the public on the dangers and their need to initiate control strategies.
Apart from that, the development of patient-centered approaches will help improve self-management, which is likely to promote improved adherence to available interventions. The intended PICOT statement will be; the risk for hypertension complications and emergencies among African Americans has been increasing. How does the adherence to available interventions serve to reduce the risk within one year? EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
Incorporation of Solutions in Health Policies and Goals
The provision of health education and carrying out promotional and awareness campaigns helps in promoting public health equity. Besides, it enhances the knowledge of individuals concerning the condition, enabling them to utilize some of the available strategies utilized in its management. It also promotes access and ensures proper funding of programs to facilitate the proper delivery of patient-centered services to the African American population and other citizens in general.
Conclusively, hypertension is a common health issue affecting millions of individuals around the world. However, African Americans are significantly affected in the United States due to various health disparities caused by non-adherence to available interventions and other health determinants. Some of the available and potential solutions are increasing educational programs to sensitize individuals about the condition and dangers of non-adherence to available interventions. EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
References EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion
- Waldron, F. A., Benenson, I., Jones-Dillon, S. A., Zinzuwadia, S. N., Adeboye, A. M., Eris, E., … & Over, A. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors for hypertensive crisis in a predominantly African American inner-city community. Blood pressure, 28(2), 114-123.
- Grady P.A. (2017). Investigating the determinants of health: The role of nursing science. Official Journal of the American Academy of Nursing. Nursing Outlook. Official Journal of the council for the Advancement of Nursing Science. Vol. 65 (5) , pp. 489-491.
- Burrello, J., Monticone, S., Buffolo, F., Tetti, M., Veglio, F., Williams, T. A., & Mulatero, P. (2017). Is there a role for genomics in the management of hypertension?. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(6), 1131.
- Ferdinand, K. C., Yadav, K., Nasser, S. A., Clayton‐Jeter, H. D., Lewin, J., Cryer, D. R., & Senatore, F. F. (2017). Disparities in hypertension and cardiovascular disease in blacks: the critical role of medication adherence. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 19(10), 1015-1024.
- CDC (2020). Facts About Hypertension. Retrieved 2 November 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm#:~:text=Nearly%20half%20of%20adults%20in,are%20taking%20medication%20for%20hypertension.&text=Only%20about%201%20in%204,have%20their%20condition%20under%20control.
EBP NUR 590 Evidence Based Practice Health Proposal Discussion