Freuds theory Psychology
Freuds theory Psychology
-prepare arguments to support each of these opinions
a. Freuds theory is antiquated, and should no longer be taught in introduction to psychology classes
b. Freuds theory is important to cover in introduction to psychology classes
In this chapter, you learned about the numerous theoretical viewpoints on personality and the different ways that it is assessed.
If you have not already done so take the Jung Typology Test. The link is presented below. This test will give you some insight into your own personality traits. After you complete the test answer the following questions:
- What was your 4-letter personality type?
- Do you feel that the results accurately reflect your personality? Why or why not? (Give an example).
- Which career paths match your personality type?
Freud’s Theory Matrix
The main function of a scientific theory is to help us to describe and explain how the world works. To form a scientific theory, scientists start with a set of assumptions, then use logic and deductive reasoning to come up with hypotheses that they can test. Psychologists use scientific theories to attempt to explain human thought, emotion, and behavior. Freuds theory Psychology
According to your textbook, Theories of Personality, there are six criteria of a useful scientific theory. A useful theory: generates research, is falsifiable, organizes data, guides action, is internally consistent, and is parsimonious (simple).
Complete the matrix below with the following information:
- Define each of the six criteria of a useful scientific theory.
- Evaluate how well each criterion applies to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory in approximately 90 words per criterion. Explain your answers. You may use bullet points, but do not use one-word responses.
- Provide the page number from the textbook where you found the information for each response. Chapters 1 and 2 from this week’s readings provide excellent information to address each of the criteria.
Note: Include appropriate APA references and citations if you use any resources other than the textbook to complete the matrix. Remember to include page numbers in your citations for any direct quotes. (Use the Reference and Citation Generator in the Center for Writing Excellence for assistance with APA style.) Freuds theory Psychology
|Criteria||Definition||Application to Freud’s Theory|
As described in your text, personality refers to the long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. Of particular interest is the stability of personality. Once we get to about the age of 30 our personality traits are pretty much set in stone—meaning change in one’s personality can be quite difficult!!
People have always been fascinated by personality. Hippocrates believed that four different bodily humors were linked to personality. They included: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Freuds theory Psychology
Phrenology was another approach to the study of personality. It involved measuring the bumps on one’s skull. This is a pseudoscience (false science) that obviously was silly and ultimately discredited. Freuds theory Psychology
Body Type and Personality-Another theory of personality suggested that one’s body type was linked to their personality. This idea posited that there were 3 body types (endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs).
Psychoanalysis—This approach was formulated by Sigmund Freud. Its basic premise is that “man is an animal” whose behavior is largely controlled by an unconscious mind.
Freud proposed that there were 3 components of the mind:
ID—The Id is totally unconscious. It is the animal part of man and is driven by instincts (e.g., aggression) The Id operates out of the Pleasure Principle—which essentially states that humans seek pleasure and want to avoid pain (e.g., hitting the snooze button immediately after your alarm rings).
EGO—The Ego can be referred to as the self. It develops after the ID and seeks to control the ID impulses but in a realistic manner. For instance, you might have an ID impulse to skip class and sleep, but the EGO will decide to go class and take a nap later. Therefore, the demands of reality are met, while the ID also gets what it desires. Hence, the Ego operates out of the Reality Principle.
SUPERGO-The Superego is the last part of the mind to develop. It is your “conscience” which knows right from wrong. It houses your morals, values, and beliefs. Hence, if you felt like skipping class (ID desire), your Superego might tell your Ego (self) “Don’t skip—it’s against our values.” At this point the Ego makes a decision as to listen to the ID or the Superego. If the Ego caves to the ID the Superego might punish the Ego with guilt. This guilt will serve the purpose of strengthening the Ego for the future—so you won’t make the same mistake twice!
Now, a question. How many of you like to feel guilty, ashamed, or embarrassed? I’m pretty sure none of you! According to Freud the ego can distort reality by the means of “ego defense mechanisms” in which we can get rid of unpleasant emotion. Below is a description of 4 of these. For the complete list see the chart in your text. Freuds theory Psychology
Repression-This is the most fundamental of the ego defense mechanisms. It occurs when we bury things in our unconscious mind. For instance, let’s say that you completely humiliated yourself at the high school prom. You were conscious of this event when it happened. Your ego, which does not like negative feelings, will repress or bury it in the unconscious so that you don’t have to dwell on it.
Denial-This is the outright refusal to believe some truth. For instance, an individual who lost her super lotto ticket might continue to buy things and believe that she is a millionaire. Freuds theory Psychology
Rationalization-This involves trying to justify or make an excuse for some misdeed. Say an individual feels guilty about insulting his friend. He may try to justify this behavior by stating something along the lines as: “Well you know he had it coming—he insulted me a couple of weeks ago.” Freuds theory Psychology
Regression-This involves engaging in a behavior that was more appropriate at a younger age. For instance, an adult who does not get his way may pout. Pouting is a behavior that is seen in 3 and 4-year-olds! Whoa!
FREUDS PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES (please see descriptions and chart in the text) Freuds theory Psychology
As a child passes through these stages his/her personality is formed. The impact of parenting is critical.
ORAL—Focus of gratification is on placing things in one’s mouth. Personality traits are shaped by how the parent treats the child. Does the parent allow the child to place everything in his mouth? If so, the child might develop a trait such as being “gullible”, as he has learned to “take everything in.” Freuds theory Psychology