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Moral Reasoning Essay

Moral Reasoning Essay

Moral Reasoning Essay

A woman was terminally ill with an uncommon form of cancer. The doctors had one last hope in the form of a medication. A local druggist had recently found this new kind of radium. The druggist was charging ten times as much as the drug cost him to produce. He spent only $400 on the radium but made $4,000 off of a rather little amount. Heinz, the husband of the sick woman, asked everyone he knew and explored every legal option available to him in an effort to raise the necessary funds, but he only managed to scrape together around $2,000, or roughly half of the total amount.

He explained to the pharmacist that his wife was terminally ill and begged for a discount or promised to pay later. The drug dealer, though, insisted, “No, I discovered the drug, and I’m going to make money from it.” Heinz had exhausted all legitimate options before resorting to breaking into the man’s store and stealing the medicine for his wife. Writings on Moral Judgment

As for your query:

Reports of the burglary and theft appeared in the papers the following day. Heinz’s buddy and fellow police officer Brown recalled seeing him act oddly last evening in the area of the lab. He spotted Heinz fleeing the lab later that night. Moral Reasoning Essay

Should Brown report what he saw? Why or why not?

Kohlberg would say:

Gilligan would say:

You would say:

Chapter 9 Complex Cognition

I.   Intelligence

A.  Assessment of Intelligence

1.         Four primary approaches to cognition are the psychometric, cognitive, neo-Piagetian, and contextual perspectives.

2.           The term intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to the comparison of an individual’s mental age or level of cognitive abilities as compared to his or her chronological age.  While chronological age can be easily determined with accurate birth records, determining mental age is much more difficult. Moral Reasoning Essay

3.         Using IQ scores across adulthood, cross-sectional studies find that intelligence begins to decline in young adulthood.

B.     Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

1.         Crystallized intelligence consists of the knowledge gained through educational and cultural systems, such as common vocabulary and mathematical skills (Berg, 2000). Moral Reasoning Essay

2.        Baltimore Longitudinal Study – Participants demonstrated increases in crystallized intelligence until middle age, followed by a plateau until very late adulthood. Most did experience a slow decline in crystallized intelligence in old-old age (Giambra et al., 1995).

C.    Alternative Theories of Intelligence

1.          Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence emphasizes the interaction of analytic, creative, and practical intelligences.

2.          Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, stemming from a strict set of criteria, are logical, mathematical, linguistic, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

II.     Creativity

1.          The study of creativity has moved in many directions, including its relationship with intelligence, personality traits, thinking patterns, and characteristics of creative products.

2.         Although creativity productivity slows in middle and late adulthood, creative skills, cognitive complexity, and personal motivation may continue to grow. Moral Reasoning Essay

3.        Studies of creativity indicate that, much like expertise and everyday problem-solving skills, the quality and complexity of creative processes and products generally grow with age. Moral Reasoning Essay

III.            Everyday Problem Solving

A.           Factors in Problem-Solving Performance

1.         The contextual approach to intelligence emphasizes the application of cognitive skills to the kinds of real-world problems adults confront in their daily environments.

2.         Studies have shown that middle-aged adults are among the best in finding high-quality solutions to practical problems.

3.         A better predictor of older adults’ competence in daily living is their everyday problem solving skills, rather than their scores on tests of fluid intelligence or general IQ.

B.          Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Strategy

1.         One example of a problem-solving strategy, the SOC model, involves identifying priorities and goals, and then using available resources to overcome deficits and achieve those goals. Moral Reasoning Essay

IV.             Moral Reasoning


A.           Resolving Everyday Personal Moral Problems

1.         As a type of complex cognition, resolving personal moral dilemmas brings together several types of intelligence and everyday problem-solving skills.

2.         Moral behaviors, reflecting the resolution of a problem, are dependent upon moral sensitivity, reasoning, motivation, and character.

3.       This week your assignment is concerned with moral behavior and although the scenario is fiction, here is non-fiction example of how one person violated a moral code of pharmaceuticals. Click on this link to learn more:  Link (Links to an external site.)

B.            Moral Cognition Across Adulthood

1.            Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, involving six stages, describes the movement from the motivation to avoid punishment, through exchanges, valuing others’ opinions. Moral Reasoning Essay

C.            Advancing in Moral Cognition

1.          Research suggests that stimulation, prompting advancement through stages of moral reasoning, comes primarily from cognitive development and role-taking opportunities.

D.          Gender Differences in Moral Cognition

1.         The criticism of gender bias in Kohlberg’s assessment of moral reasoning, specifically favoring a male-oriented justice system over a female-oriented value system based on care, remains controversial in that it has gained much support while the research evidence generally does not support it.

2.         Gilligan and others have challenged the gender-neutrality of Kohlberg’s stages by asserting that it favors a justice and fairness orientation (masculine values) over an emphasis on caring and responsibility (feminine values).

E.   Values Systems and Moral Cognition

1.          Regarding values as a general topic of study, some view value systems as stable, general frameworks whereas others view them as changing with the context and varying based on source. Moral Reasoning Essay

See Assignments

Post Discussion: Page 241 of your text states…”formal situations,…college entrance exam, we would be labeled, “cheaters,” if we consulted someone else about the probable solution,…in everyday life, however, we ask for other’s opinions all the time when trying to solve a problem.” What is your reaction to this statement? Why do we distinguish between the 2 types of problem solving?