NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Clinical leadership, along with values-based care and compassion, are critical in supporting the development of high quality healthcare service and delivery. Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare: Values into Action offers a range of tools and topics that support and foster clinically focused nurses and other healthcare professionals to develop their leadership potential. The new edition has been updated in light of recent key changes in health service approaches to care and values.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper Divided into three parts, it offers information on the attributes of clinical leaders, as well as the tools healthcare students and staff can use to develop their leadership potential. It also outlines a number of principles, frameworks and topics that support nurses and healthcare professionals to develop and deliver effective clinical care as clinical leaders. Covering a wide spectrum of practical topics, Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare includes information on: Theories of leadership and management Organizational culture Gender Generational issues and leaders Project management Quality initiatives Working in teams Managing change Effective clinical decision making How to network and delegate How to deal with conflict Implementing evidence-based practice Each chapter also has a range of reflective questions and self-assessments to help consolidate learning. It is invaluable reading for all nursing and healthcare professionals, as well as students and those newly qualified.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

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Aim: To identify how clinical leadership was perceived by Health Professionals (HPs) (excluding nurses and doctors) and to understand how effective clinical leadership relates to initiating and establishing a culture of change and progression in the health services. Methodology: This pilot study used a mixed methods approach, although quantitative methodological principles dominated. An on-line (Survey Monkey) questionnaire was distributed via email links to HPs throughout the Western Australian Department of Health. Qualitative data was analyses by Statistical Product and Service Solutions (Version 21). Results: A total of 307 complete surveys were returned. Participants represented 6.1% of the total WA HP workforce and a wide range of HP disciplines. The majority of respondents were female (86.5%), the median age was 38.9 years and the majority of respondents worked in acute hospital environments (59.9%) and in a metropolitan location (73.7%). Most participants (79.2%) saw themselves or were reportedly seen by others (76.2%) as clinical leaders. The main attributes associated with clinical leadership were; effective communicator, clinical competence, approach ability, role model and supportive. The main attribute identified least with clinical leadership was “controlling”. Only 22.2% saw clinical leaders as managers, while the majority saw a clinical focus as important (85.3%). Clinical leaders were perceived as having an impact on how clinical care is delivered, staff support and leading change and service improvement. Many respondents (81.4%) suggested barriers hindered their effectiveness as clinical leaders. Conclusions: Improvements in clinical care and changes in practice can be initiated by clinical leaders.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Importance of Strong Nursing Leadership

Strong leadership is essential in all types of work environments, and particularly in those that involve high pressure situations and quick decision making. Employment as a nurse in a healthcare setting undoubtedly fits into that category. Quality leadership is key for ensuring successful nursing teams

Nurturing Teamwork

Strong nursing leadership helps encourage other nurses to function as team units. Nurses — leaders or otherwise — must have strong interpersonal skills to be successful. They must be adept at communicating with each other, with doctors and other staff, with patients and with patients’ families. Strong teamwork and communication are both key to providing quality patient care. To achieve this, head nurses and others in positions of leadership must encourage their team members to communicate clearly, collaborate with each other on any issues that come up, and be willing to help each other out when things are especially busy.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Encouraging Success

Effective nurse leaders promote an environment that makes their staffs more passionate and enthusiastic about their work. Leaders must show their staff members — through actions and words — that it’s never OK to be satisfied with anything that’s less than 100 percent. They drive nurses to conduct themselves in a professional manner, and they provide the tools and guidance that can help nurses meet or exceed their performance goals. Nurse leaders should be clear in their instructions and honest about their team’s performance. They should also offer encouragement to team members who might be having a hard time and praise to those who do outstanding work.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Importance of Strong Nursing LeadershipStrong leadership is essential in all types of work environments, and particularly in those that involve high pressure situations and quick decision making. Employment as a nurse in a healthcare setting undoubtedly fits into that category. Quality leadership is key for ensuring successful nursing teams.

Nurturing Teamwork

Strong nursing leadership helps encourage other nurses to function as team units. Nurses — leaders or otherwise — must have strong interpersonal skills to be successful. They must be adept at communicating with each other, with doctors and other staff, with patients and with patients’ families. Strong teamwork and communication are both key to providing quality patient care. To achieve this, head nurses and others in positions of leadership must encourage their team members to communicate clearly, collaborate with each other on any issues that come up, and be willing to help each other out when things are especially busy.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Encouraging Success

Effective nurse leaders promote an environment that makes their staffs more passionate and enthusiastic about their work. Leaders must show their staff members — through actions and words — that it’s never OK to be satisfied with anything that’s less than 100 percent. They drive nurses to conduct themselves in a professional manner, and they provide the tools and guidance that can help nurses meet or exceed their performance goals. Nurse leaders should be clear in their instructions and honest about their team’s performance. They should also offer encouragement to team members who might be having a hard time and praise to those who do outstanding work.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

 

Proper Organization

Proper organization is vital to the success of a nursing team. Without proper organization, chaos is likely to ensue — definitely not a good thing in the demanding, fast-paced healthcare world. A strong nurse leader must be methodical, detail oriented and skilled at quickly identifying and fixing problems. She should be able to juggle many diverse tasks simultaneously, whether they involve assigning specific duties to the rest of the nurse team, writing out shift schedules for the rest of the month or overseeing patient care.

Positive Growth

Strong nurse leaders possess the confidence to analyze their work processes honestly and think of ways to improve on them. When their team’s performance falls below standard, they should be willing to make changes that will take the performance to the next level. Nurse leaders need to be able to influence others on their teams to routinely evaluate themselves — and the things around them — to determine what works, what doesn’t, and what should be done to improve the work environment and team performance.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Leadership in nursing: The importance of recognizing inherent values and attributes to secure a positive future for the profession.

Nursing is a dynamic and challenging profession requiring engaging and inspiring role models and leaders. In today’s ever changing and demanding healthcare environment, identifying and developing nurse leaders is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession. The concept of leadership is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon; research conducted for over a century concludes that although it is one of the most observed concepts, no universally accepted definition or theory of leadership actually exists. There is increasing clarity surrounding what true nursing leadership is, and how it differs from management. This discussion will outline the nature of nursing leadership and importance of nurse leaders in advancing the profession; clarify definitions and differentiate between nurse managers and nurse leaders; describe the evolution of nurse leadership by identify theories and styles of leadership relevant to nursing practice; and highlight the importance of identifying leaders in the nursing profession.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper The paper also serves as a caution to recognize, avoid and discourage “negative” leaders in the pursuit of a bright future for the nursing profession. With appropriate identification, support and development of future nurse leaders, an acknowledgement of the shifting paradigm of leadership theory and the context in which future nurse leaders are destined to grow, the ultimate goal of the nursing profession–excellent in person centered care–can be achieved. It is essential to the future success of the nursing profession that informal, negative “leaders” be discouraged and positive leaders, possessing the evidence-based qualities of leadership be identified and nurtured to lead the profession.

As the health care system continues to undergo rapid change, the nature of nurses’ roles are changing as well, according to Health force faculty research. As the largest licensed health professional group in the US, nurses are four times more prevalent than physicians. They practice in nearly every setting of the health care system and many are poised to take on leadership roles. But plenty of nurses will need to gain new skills, including leadership and management competencies, to meet patient needs in this increasingly value-focused health care environment.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

How Our Programs Support Nursing Leadership

To address health care’s most critical challenges, health professionals from various fields and backgrounds must break down silos and work together. Health force Center’s leadership development programs take an interdisciplinary approach and train health care professionals across the workforce. The CHCF Health Care Leadership Program, for example, prepares clinically trained professionals to lead California’s health care organizations. Nurses, physicians, case managers and more join together to learn essential leadership and management skills. We believe leadership development is a process of discovery and our programs help participants develop effective leadership styles, facilitate action and lead teams.

News and Research for Nursing Leaders

Health force Center is a leading source of research insights into the nursing workforce. For more than two decades, we have conducted studies and surveys of the nursing workforce to better understand:

  • The impact of state scope-of-practice regulations
  •  The availability of nurses and nurse practitioners to care for vulnerable populations
  • Nurse practitioner and nurse midwife use of health information technology NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper
  • The factors that affect rural nurse practitioners including job satisfaction and intention to remain in rural areas
Considerations for Nurse Leadership

Nursing leaders play a pivotal role in directing the operation of a health care organization. They are responsible for inspiring and encouraging their staff to meet the highest standards of performance. One effective way to do this is to employ a transformational leadership style – an approach popularized by writer James Mac Gregor Burns. This approach creates an environment, he says, where “leaders and followers make each other advance to a higher level of performance, morale and motivation.” This approach can help you increase your staff’s productivity as well as its overall job satisfaction. It means leading by example, exhibiting compassion and promoting the same behavior among staff members. Adopting this approach helps humanize the workplace while making you a better nurse leader.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Problems with Communication in a Health Care Organization

Challenges arise in the workplace and not everyone responds well to the same communication style. The following variables, combined with the fast-paced nature of most health care environments, can contribute to communication struggles:

  • Age differences among collaborators
  • Different levels of work experience and professional knowledge
  • Different personalities in the workplace

Fortunately, by earning a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) with a concentration in executive leadership, you will be equipped to help staff members overcome these factors. MSN leadership curricula emphasizes building advanced communication, coaching and interpersonal skills, and prepares you to manage issues related to:NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

  • Workplace diversity
  • Generational variances
  • Collaboration
  • Organizational recruitment
  • Shared leadership
  • Trust and credibility

Earning an MSN in nurse leadership can prepare you to be a leader in terms of professional vision and strategy. You will also learn how to lead teams to focus on shared goals in a health care setting.

Ways Nurse Leaders Can Inspire and Motivate

Several character-based traits stand out as skills that make a good nurse leader:

  • They are passionate and positive.
  • They are sensitive to the needs of patients, peers and staff.
  • They are decisive when taking action.
  • They are supportive of the careers and goals of others.
  • They are solution-oriented.

According to Rose O. Sherman, Ed.D., RN, RAAN, nurse leaders capable of effectively coaching teams have demonstrated “miraculous” outcomes regardless of how challenging the conflict or situation. Sherman believes transformational leadership can have a “multiplying” effect on other employees, leading to an overall enhancement of the intelligence and abilities across an organization.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

The goal of nursing leadership is to be a role model for staff and to inspire others. Leaders have a nurturer’s temperament and show genuine concern for staff. Liz Wise man, writing in the Harvard Business Review, determined leaders who are “multipliers” use 95 percent of their staff’s intellectual abilities; comparatively, leaders who are “diminishes”, or leaders focused on their own professional success and well-being, used just 48 percent of their staff’s talents.

Organizations led by nurses with strong leadership skills boast:

  • Higher employee satisfaction
  • More confident staff members
  • Stronger employee retention rates
  • Better patient outcomes
  • Higher quality of patient care
  • More effective day-to-day processes

Essential Leadership Qualities for a Health Care Setting

Adopting transformational leadership qualities and translating them into success requires you to be a compassionate leader, an effective communicator and an encouraging collaborator who fosters a culture of openness in the workplace. The following five rise to the top of the list in terms of boosting employee morale and getting the most out of staff members:NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

  1. Reward Good Performance: Rewarding good performance in the workplace lets your employees know they are valued. Rewards communicate that you recognize their effort and commitment and it can bolster employee morale and improve subsequent workplace performance.
  2. Address Workplace Problems: Sometimes it is necessary to take an assertive stance in order to address issues that may be uncomfortable but still require attention. Pulling an employee to the side in order to work out a problem is an effective way to proactively address an issue while also demonstrating respect towards their privacy in the workplace.
  3. Highlight Individual Strengths: Take the time to get to know staff, whether it is during the workday or over a long lunch. This enables you to evaluate each individual’s strengths, weaknesses and aspirations. This knowledge can help you ensure that each staff member’s talents are being used to their fullest. When employees feel engaged, their skills and overall performance and job satisfaction are enhanced.
  4. Promote Multi-Level Communication: Encourage a culture of transparency within your organization by having members of various departments interact with one another whenever possible. This kind of communication encourages trust and creates a culture of respect.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper
  5. Humanize the Workplace: Always remember that employees and patients are people first. Rather than treating your interactions as “patient and provider” or “employee and boss,” try instead to remember you are interacting with people. This shift in perspective enables you to build trust and respect among st your staff and patients, which will contribute to higher levels of satisfaction for all concerned.

Implementing these strategies can help mitigate many challenges that arise in the workplace. It will put you in a better position to manage issues related to personality differences, age and experience. By Treating employees and patients as individuals will result in a happier and healthier environment – one with stronger employee retention and more positive patient outcomes.

Essential Qualities of Nurse Leadership

All care provider organizations need nurse leaders to oversee staff members. [1] The health care field grows more complex as nurse leaders brace for a mass exodus of retiring registered nurses and an influx of fresh, green talent.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Despite warnings of a health care talent shortage for the last several decades, developing new nurse leaders has been a low priority for current administrations. Today, three factors are of particular concern to nurse leaders: the growing baby boomer population, the increased demand for medical services presented by this group, and the large number of registered nurses who will soon retire.

It’s critical that current nurse leaders groom protégés to fill the void that will be left by their exodus. The lack of preparation to affect this outcome, despite years of warnings, has presented a considerable challenge for health care providers. Now is a difficult time for organizations attempting to develop a pool of qualified nurse leaders.

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The retiring nurse cohort represents the biggest challenge for provider organizations who will experience a large influx of inexperienced nursing talent that will eventually comprise half the United States registered nursing pool. These circumstances make the cultivation of new nurse leaders vitally important. As a result, various nursing advocates have formed alliances to develop new leaders. With this in mind, the following nine qualities aid nursing executives in meeting the objective of fostering new leadership talent.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

1. Emotional Intelligence

In clinical settings, nurse leaders work closely with trainees to help them develop emotional intelligence. [2] Such support helps peers to cope with the stressors that present during routine challenges. Nurse leaders assist trainees in managing those challenges and other counterproductive influences that can result in emotional exhaustion and poor team collaboration.

2. Integrity

Integrity for one’s self and among charges is a primary objective for nurse leaders. [1] Personal integrity aids nurse practitioners in making the right choices during critical junctures in patients’ treatment plans. Additionally, effective leaders adapt to use, and teach, ethically viable practices that enable fledgling nurse leaders to make safe and effective care decisions intrinsically.

3. Critical Thinking

Nurse leaders guide unpolished practitioners in the use of critical thinking to develop their ability to make decisions based on a complex array of factors. This skill is vital in a health care environment with increasing instances of multidisciplinary collaboration. The growing trend of autonomy for nurses also makes critical thinking a valuable professional skill for practitioners.

4. Dedication to Excellence

Nurse leaders are committed to their passion and purpose and exemplify this through their perseverance in the care giving setting. [3] To foster this trait among new nurses, leaders may assess performances quarterly. Despite the technique used to improve nurse performance, all nurse leaders teach their charges dedication to excellence by delivering top-notch service so that trainees can learn from their examples.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

5. Communication Skills

The current multidisciplinary treatment environment greatly increases the importance of collaboration in the care provider setting. To facilitate collaboration, nurse leaders arrange for trainees to attend rounds while engaging with various medical professionals, such as support staff, primary care providers, and senior executives. Some health care organizations also establish recruitment retention teams, who might engage in these rounds with trainees.

6. Professional Socialization

During training, nurse leaders gain an intense understanding of patient-nurse dynamics. [2] Nurse leaders focus on developing how trainees engage with patients after the triage process. Effective nurse leaders identify opportunities to develop new organizational leaders during this learning process.

7. Respect

Nurse leaders are passionate, dynamic influence rs who inspire change in others and, in the process, win the respect and trust of their charges. To accomplish this, leaders teach communication techniques such as two-way communication and rephrasing to promote a workplace environment where stakeholders engage each other in a productive, positive manner. By understanding each other’s circumstances, trainees gain respect for their peers and nurse leaders.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

8. Mentor ship

Nurse leaders deploy motivational strategies that cater to the individual personalities of their trainees. By empowering trainees and guiding them toward understanding their roles as care providers, nurse leaders cultivate an environment of continual learning. While effective nurse leaders make every effort to identify learning opportunities, they give trainees enough autonomy so that they do not feel micromanaged.

9. Professionalism

Nursing is a dynamic profession that requires competent, confident leadership. As organizational leaders, these professionals represent the nursing field at nearly every professional point of contact within the organization. This will increase in significance as nurse leaders find themselves representing the field in the boardroom more frequently as time moves forward.
Nursing leadership will change hands to a new generation of nursing talent over the next decade. [1] These professionals will play a vital role in liaising between nurses and executive leaders in the evolving health care environment. Therefore, it is critical that nurse leaders start cultivating their replacements now and that the new generation of nurses pursue advanced training, such as Doctor of Nursing Practice accreditation, that will allow them to practice to the full extent of their capabilities.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Nursing Leadership Styles

1. Autocratic Leadership

An autocratic nurse is The Boss, full stop. A nurse who leads using this management style makes all decisions and gives specific orders and directions to subordinates, and tends to discourage questions or dissent. There’s also a low tolerance for mistakes and the people who make them.

When this style works best: For simple or straightforward tasks, or making sure that strict legal or medical guidelines are adhered to. It can also help in emergency situations, when there needs to be a strong voice giving direction.

When this style doesn’t work so well: When a nurse manager wants to build trust and teamwork among other team members, or encourage creative problem solving.

2. Laissez-Faire Leadership

The laissez-faire nurse is the opposite of the autocratic nurse. In this style, the nurse provides no specific direction for team members, and adopts more of a hands-off approach to managing.

When this style works best: When the nurse’s team is already experienced and self-directed, and doesn’t necessarily need a general giving orders.

When this style doesn’t work so well: When specific decisions need to be made and implemented, or team members are inexperienced.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

3. Democratic Leadership

The democratic nurse manager takes input from subordinates, and encourages open communication. The decision making ultimately with the manager, but stakeholders and team members are asked for honest feedback, and given feedback in return.

When this style works best: When the nurse wants to build relationships with staff members based on trust and accountability, or when improving systems and processes is a priority.

When this style doesn’t work so well: When a concrete decision needs to be made quickly, gathering feedback and testing the waters with team members isn’t necessarily helpful or feasible.

4. Transformational Leadership

The transformational (sometimes also called visionary) nurse manager is focused on the big picture (improved patient care, better systems and processes), and how to get there.

When this style works best: When the workplace (in this case, a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility) is in need of big changes and improvements.

When this style doesn’t work so well: When day-to-day decision making is required on small or specific issues.

5. Servant Leadership

The servant nurse leader focuses on team success via individual team members. Despite the meek-sounding name, this management style has been gaining popularity over the past few years. This leader targets team members’ needs, ensuring that they have the skills, relationships, and tools to achieve individual and group goals.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

When this style works best: When a team has diverse members with different tasks and responsibilities.

When this style doesn’t work so well: When top-down decisions need to be made, or a group needs to follow collective directions.

So which type of nurse leader are you, and what kind of leadership style works best for your job and your career goals? We’d love to hear how these management styles work for you.

Nursing is a dynamic and challenging profession requiring engaging and inspiring role models and leaders. In today’s ever changing and demanding healthcare environment, identifying and developing nurse leaders is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession. The concept of leadership is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon; research conducted for over a century concludes that although it is one of the most-observed concepts, no universally accepted definition or theory of leadership actually exists. There is increasing clarity surrounding what true nursing leadership is, and how it differs from management.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

This discussion will outline the nature of nursing leadership and importance of nurse leaders in advancing the profession; clarify definitions and differentiate between nurse managers and nurse leaders; describe the evolution of nurse leadership by identify theories and styles of leadership relevant to nursing practice; and highlight the importance of identifying leaders in the nursing profession. The paper also serves as a caution to recognize, avoid and discourage “negative” leaders in the pursuit of a bright future for the nursing profession.

With appropriate identification, support and development of future nurse leaders, an acknowledgement of the shifting paradigm of leadership theory and the context in which future nurse leaders are destined to grow, the ultimate goal of the nursing profession – excellent in person-centered care – can be achieved. It is essential to the future success of the nursing profession that informal, negative “leaders” be discouraged and positive leaders, possessing the evidence-based qualities of leadership be identified and nurtured to lead the profession.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

The Relationship Between Leadership and Patient Outcomes

In this review 19 patient outcome variables were found, which were grouped into five categories using content analysis. These showed the relationship between leadership and:

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  1. Patient satisfaction
  2. Patient mortality, patient safety outcomes
  3. Adverse events
  4. Complications
  5. Patient healthcare utilization

In 30% of studies, patient outcomes, primarily patient or family satisfaction, were collected prospectively by researchers. In one study, patient mortality and complications were collected from clinical charts and in all other studies patient outcomes were collected from administrative databases. Of the individual outcomes, patient mortality and medication errors were the most frequently examined outcomes. Over all studies, a total of 43 relationships between leadership and patient outcomes were examined and 63% of these were significant. While 26 relationships between leadership and positive patient outcomes were significant, one relationship showed the opposite of the expected results.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Patient Satisfaction

The number of studies relating leadership practices to patient satisfaction was more than doubled in this review. The results showed significant associations between leadership and increased patient satisfaction in four studies. Relational leadership was associated with patient satisfaction in two studies, while another found that family satisfaction with resident care was significantly and positively related to task-oriented leadership style of nursing home ward managers. Similarly, others found that the transaction al leadership style was related to increased patient satisfaction.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Patient Mortality

In four of six studies, leadership was significantly associated with patient mortality. Transformational and resonant leadership were associated with lower patient mortality in three studies while, contrary to hypothesis, leadership was associated with higher mortality in one study. It has been suggested that managers with larger spans of control may have been hampered in their ability to provide direct support to nursing staff. However, there was another contradictory finding in that lower mortality was associated with higher nurse burnout.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Patient Safety Outcomes: Adverse Events

A total of nine studies addressed ten types of outcomes in this category. The strongest relationship was between leadership and medication errors, as four of five studies showed significant negative relationships. Transformational leadership, manager support and trust in leadership were all associated with lower medication errors. Patient falls were examined in four studies and the results were mixed since two studies showed significantly decreased patient falls related to transformational leadership, while in two other studies manager support was not significantly related to fall rates. A lower incidence of pressure ulcers was significantly associated with leadership in only one of three studies. Two studies found significant relationships between positive leadership styles (consensus and participate) and lower restraint use in nursing homes. In two of three studies examining hospital-acquired infections (pneumonia and urinary tract infections) transformational leadership was associated with lower infection rates.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Patient Safety Outcomes: Complications

Three types of complication outcomes were addressed in two studies and thus there were few studies for each type of complication limiting the ability to draw conclusions. A study conducted in neonatal intensive care settings found a reduced incidence of neonatal atrioventricular hemorrhage/ventricular kleptomaniac (PIVH/PVL) associated with higher leadership ratings. No relationship between leadership and pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis was found.

Patient Healthcare Utilization

A new category of patient outcomes was added since three studies addressed patient healthcare utilization indicators, specifically the number of hospitalizations, hospital readmission’s and hospital length of stay as outcomes related to work environment factors including leadership. Healthcare utilization measures reflect services or resources consumed in managing patients’ health-related needs. It has been proposed that patient hospitalizations are considered important indicators of the general health status of patients who are on dialysis and may be considered a reasonable nurse-sensitive quality indicator in dialysis settings. One study claimed that the frequency of hospital readmission rates reflected an inadequate patient safety process which means that hospitals with poorer safety cultures would be expected to exhibit higher levels of hospital readmission’s. Manager support was included as one element of patient safety culture. Both studies did not demonstrate significant findings for the effects of leadership on these two healthcare utilization outcomes. However, it was found that manager support was associated with a lower patient length of stay through the human resource indicators of lower absenteeism, overtime and nurse to patient ratio.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Discussing the Impact of Relational Leadership

The findings provide support for the assertion that relational leadership practices are positively associated with some categories of patient outcomes. They highlighted a key relationship between relational leadership and the reduction of adverse events, specifically medication errors, possibly through leaders’ influence on human resource variables that may be connected to patient care outcomes, staff expertise, turnover, absenteeism, overtime and nurse to patient ratios. This important connection may suggest that effective nursing leadership is essential to the creation of nursing work environments, with appropriate staffing levels, resources and care processes that support nurses in preventing unnecessary deaths. Finally, there was a significant positive relationship between both relational and task-oriented leadership and patient satisfaction. This finding may indicate that some elements of each style are needed to ensure care processes that contribute to satisfied patients such as clear standards of care and role expectations as well as collaborative working relationships.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Implications for Leadership Theory

Transformational leadership was the most frequently applied leadership theory in the reviewed studies. Attention to other leadership theories that may have relevance to nursing and healthcare are worthy of further application for the potential mediating processes they propose between leadership and outcomes.

Authentic leadership is an emergent leadership approach from the field of positive organizational behavior that highlights the importance of examining the context and the influence of followers in the leader-follower dynamic. This relational leadership approach is grounded in the leader’s positive psychological capacities, honesty and transparency, strong ethics and behavioral integrity. The utility of this theory is that it emphasizes possible mechanisms through which leadership influences performance, and how followers shape leadership within and between various organizational contexts, climates and cultures.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Resonant leadership theory, based on the concept of emotional intelligence, is also worthy of greater application in healthcare. These theories focus on the leader’s ability to attend to the individual’s emotions and the outcomes of these behaviors for individual’s well-being and performance. Likewise, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory has received little attention in healthcare despite a large empirical base in other disciplines and the potential to increase understanding of the linkages between leadership, processes and patient outcomes. In this theory, the nature and quality of the relationship between the leader and the follower that forms over time is posited to play a vital role in employee responses to their work environments.

Implications for Nursing Practice

The findings from this review underscore the value of relational leadership styles, which were positively and indirectly related to nurse’s motivation to perform, improved work environments and outcomes for nurses and nurse retention. These findings suggest that a complex interplay of associations between the relational practices of formal nursing leaders to provide vision, support, staffing resources and leadership, with the health, competencies, abilities, knowledge, skills and motivation of nurses, are integral to the achievement of better patient outcomes.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Relation ally-oriented leaders contribute to positive practice settings and staff work engagement by providing support and encouragement, positive and constructive feedback, open and transparent communication and individual consideration. Creating opportunities for meaningful dialogue between leaders and clinical nurses is necessary to discuss patient care issues that could impede patient safety. While this is challenging in the current high-paced, and heavy meeting-laden managerial roles, it remains a priority that cannot be overlooked. Nurses must be provided with the opportunity and staffing resources to monitor patients’ conditions and address their education needs regarding self-care, symptom management and other factors related to patient empowerment.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

The connection noted between supportive leadership styles and positive patient safety outcomes may point to the importance of unit leaders’ understanding of patient care processes and the role of nurses and other healthcare providers in promoting better outcomes. A recent study provided evidence that when leaders demonstrated higher relational leadership, the staff on their units reported more positive patient safety climates. The ability of leaders to promote a safe workplace is governed by their knowledge of patient care needs, their level of relational skills and their capacity to recognize and implement effective safety practices. Additionally, the development of safety cultures through leadership interventions, which include managers’ interdisciplinary walkabout safety rounds, have been linked to improved outcomes.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

The Importance of Nursing Leadership

The current evidence reinforced findings from the previous review with respect to the positive relationships between relational leadership styles and patient satisfaction and improved patient safety outcomes. Specifically, the current evidence suggests a clear relationship between relational leadership styles and lower patient mortality and reduced medication errors, restraint use, and hospital-acquired infections. Thereby, recruiting and retaining individuals into leader roles with the requisite emotional intelligence competencies that underpin relational leadership styles are critical to effective performance at all levels of organizations.

Leadership Skills Nurses Need To Be Successful

As well as being compassionate, patient and caring, as a nurse you also need to be able to demonstrate leadership skills from the start of your career. Currently, the healthcare system is in a state of flux, which makes planning ahead difficult. However, if you equip yourself with the right leadership qualities you can respond to the challenges and opportunities you will face in the future. With the right skills and knowledge you can take your career to the next level. Here is a list of qualities to help you get the most from your profession.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

  1. A global perspective or mindset
    Any profession that requires working in the community needs employees who embrace diversity and are aware of cultural differences within society1. In the context of healthcare, a global perspective will help nurse leaders to respond effectively to worldwide healthcare trends and adapt them to their work on a national, regional and local level. It is by working together and sharing technologies, strategies and successes worldwide that we can begin to address global healthcare issues.
  2. A working knowledge of technology
    In order to operate an efficient healthcare service, you need to support it with the right technology. Electronic health records (EHRs) clinical decision support (CDS) and bio metrics support daily processes and interactions in healthcare – as well as impacting the collection and use of healthcare data. It is expected that by 2020 these technologies will be commonplace, so arming yourself with the appropriate technical knowledge now will stand you in good stead for the future.
  3. Expert decision-making skills
    A key quality in any leader or manager is decision-making skills. Healthcare decisions based on research and empirical science are most likely to achieve the desired results. However, decisions in complex environments such as healthcare can often be hard to judge – and look set to become harder in the future2. One decision-making strategy that could be implemented by nurse leaders in the future is using ‘expert networks’; communities made up of top thinkers, researchers, managers and scientists3. Whatever the solution, the process of decision-making needs to be aligned throughout the organization if problems are going to be combated effectively4.
  4. Prioritizing quality and safety
    Studies suggest that the current healthcare system is let down by errors and not enough focus on patient/worker safety. This has been attributed to a culture of blame, poor communication and a lack of resources within the profession5. In the future, nurse leaders will need to adopt innovative approaches to quality and safety and integrate them into their daily processes.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper
  5. Being politically astute
    Politics surrounds us and is part of every organization – and healthcare is no different. Nurse leaders need to make the right political decisions if they are to succeed. Nurse leaders need to be able to identify the finer details of relationships, communication and informal power structures at work. By accurately interpreting these different social situations they can act appropriately when the time comes and act as role models for others.
  6. Collaborative and team building skills
    Good leadership is all about creating good working relationships, identifying a common purpose with colleagues and working together cooperatively. However, achieving the right balance is not always easy. The focus for nurse leaders needs to be on collaboration, becoming great role models and creating a sense of community through mentoring, clear communication and conflict management6.
  7. Balancing authenticity and performance expectations
    A true leader is someone who remains true to themselves and their values. Authenticity in leadership is something that today’s organizations need if they are to succeed. In a healthcare system that is increasingly focused on reaching targets and meeting budgets, nurse leaders are likely to be faced with moral dilemmas. Meeting the ever-changing expectations and priorities of stakeholders is a hard task, but by being an authentic leader, nurses can place the patient first.
  8. Coping effectively with change
    Being visionary and proactive when faced with a healthcare system defined by rapid change and chaos is perhaps the most important of all the qualities listed. Today’s healthcare organizations face continual change in the form of organizational restructuring, quality improvement and employee retention7. Such change brings with it feelings of pride and stress in equal measures. Nurse leaders need to embrace change, adapt to it and in doing so re-energize and empower the workforce8.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Mentoring: Nurturing leadership in nursing practice

Mentoring and leadership has been described in the literature as human-becoming incarnating and committing to our protégé with enthusiasm and to use impelling, gentle urging. Mentoring is an enduring human relationship that is essential for both personal and professional growth for anyone. Studies have found that dedicated mentors engaged in supporting and enhancing the work environment for RNs. The partnership enhanced mutual respect between front line RNs and managers, and administration and improved the mentoring and supportive culture. The evidence correlates mentoring with the promotion of talent, achievement, leadership, and knowledge and skill development in nursing. Every nurse requires the invested interest and involvement of others to fully develop talent, to imagine our future possibilities and contribute to healthcare. The overall aim of this presentation is to educate colleagues about mentor ship and how it relates to nursing practice, nurses in all areas of practice can benefit from a skillful mentor in a setting where their involvement might not be intuitive. This study also aims to:NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper Define the broad concepts relating to mentor ship and nursing leadership; recognize the role of the mentor in helping navigate professional practice issues and work-life encounters; describe the role of mentor in the mentor-men tee relationship and identify characteristics of a community of mentor ship. This presentation explains the role of mentor in nursing practice with an emphasis on leadership at the point of care. All nurses are leaders in clinical practice, education, research or administration. Nurses are leaders and as such we have an opportunity to mentor others on their journey. This presentation will describe how nurses as leaders and mentors can advance practice and the profession.

Clinical leadership, along with values-based care and compassion, are critical in supporting the development of high quality healthcare service and delivery. Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare: Values into Action offers a range of tools and topics that support and foster clinically focused nurses and other healthcare professionals to develop their leadership potential. The new edition has been updated in light of recent key changes in health service approaches to care and values. Divided into three parts, it offers information on the attributes of clinical leaders, as well as the tools healthcare students and staff can use to develop their leadership potential. It also outlines a number of principles, frameworks and topics that support nurses and healthcare professionals to develop and deliver effective clinical care as clinical leaders.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper
Covering a wide spectrum of practical topics, Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare includes information on: * Theories of leadership and management * Organizational culture * Gender * Generational issues and leaders * Project management * Quality initiatives * Working in teams * Managing change * Effective clinical decision making * How to network and delegate * How to deal with conflict * Implementing evidence-based practice Each chapter also has a range of reflective questions and self-assessments to help consolidate learning. It is invaluable reading for all nursing and healthcare professionals, as well as students and those newly qualified.

Leadership in nursing is quite different from leadership in business or other industries. Several leadership models exist that can be used in nursing. As a leader, you must evaluate the leadership skills you possess and build from there to become the ideal nurse leader. When
nurse leaders stick to only one type of leadership model, patient care and the healthcare team
can suffer.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

“Not a Leader”
Managers often hear nurses, say “I am not a leader, so I can’t be the charge nurse.” Not all leaders are suitable for charge nurse roles. However, nurses can show leadership skills by teaching other nurses and advocating for patients. Managers and charge nurses use different types of leadership, in various situations.

The five types of leadership include servant, transformational, democratic, authoritarian, and laissez-faire. All have positive and negatives impacts on the nursing team and patients.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Servant Leader
Servant leaders influence and motivate others by building relationships and dividing skills among individual team members.

Positive impacts of servant leadership include:

  • Listening – Through active listening, servant leaders build better patient relationships.
  • Accepting – They are nonjudgmental and accepting

Positive impact for patients include:

  • Helping them to heal – This type of leader can help patients recover by cheering them on as they meet their goals for recovery.
  • Seeking help from all team members – They include nurse aides and ancillary staff as part of the entire patient care team.
  • Feeling secure with trust and confidence – Transformational leaders are trusted by their patients, which can help them feel safe.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Democratic Leader
Democratic leaders foster open communication, allowing staff to take part in decision-making.

Positive impacts for patients include:

  • Opportunity to Provide Feedback- Democratic leaders want to know what the patient thinks of their care. They may even ask the patient directly for feedback.
  • Evaluate processes – After hearing feedback, the democratic leader will go back and evaluate the process to improve issues.

Authoritarian Leader
Authoritarian leaders make decisions without staff input. This leader looks at their knowledge as power to control the team without input.

Negative impacts on patients

  • “I’m better than you” attitude – This can make others feel inferior and interfere with the goals of the staff and the patient.
  • Blame others – They blame others for faults in the plan instead of viewing their leadership style as a problem.

Positive for patients

  • Emergencies – They show their power in emergencies. The authoritarian leader delegates needs to the team during a crisis, keeping the situation less chaotic.NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

Laissez-faire Leader
The laissez-faire leader has no leadership direction. They don’t have the drive or desire to change the direction they are heading.

Negative impacts for Teams:

  • Avoid confrontation – Laissez-faire leaders avoid confrontation. If a staff member is breaking the rules or causing tension, the laissez-faire leader tends to ignore the problem. Avoiding confrontation can create poor morale in the unit.

Negative impacts on patients:

  • Change won’t happen – They may hear a patient complaint, but don’t create an action plan to change the problem.
  • Appears inexperienced – By being too laid back, the laissez-faire leader appears inexperienced, even when they are not.

Research shows the best type of leader is the transformational leadership model. Though, when
looking at the ideal nurse manager or charge nurse, the best kind of leader possesses a mixture
of all the models. When evaluating your nurse leadership style, see where you stand now and
improve by always being a “work in progress”. NURS 6201 – Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare Case Study Paper

 

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