NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

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Week 5 Discussion Post

“The Latin word for honey and the Greek word for fountain make up the term diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, and its symptoms are primarily caused by inadequate levels of insulin and cellular resistance to its effects (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021 p. 397). The following are the variations between diabetes types 1, 2, and juvenile:

Diabetes type 1-was once called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes, but because more people including children are developing type 2 those terms are not used anymore. In type 1 diabetes there is a destruction of pancreatic B cells-which are responsible for insulin synthesis and release into the bloodstream. The destruction of B cells is due to the autoimmune process, the cause is unknown as mentioned in Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021 p. 397. NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

Diabetes type 2- is the most common form of diabetes, it used to be called non-insulin- dependent diabetes or adult set diabetes. As with type 1 these terms are not used because all age groups can develop type 2. With type 2 insulin there is insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion and over time pancreatic B cell function diminishes, insulin production and secretion reduce over time” (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021 p. 397).

“Gestational Diabetes is diabetes that develops in pregnancy and then subsides rapidly after delivery. The placenta produces hormones that work against insulin’s actions, cortisol production increases threefold and cortisol promotes hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia in the mother will stimulate excessive insulin in the fetus which can have adverse effects on the fetus” (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021 p. 398).

“Metformin is an oral drug used in type 2 diabetes and is given as monotherapy at the start of diagnosis of type 2 if there are no contraindication. As a first line drug if has beneficial effects on A1C and weight and cardiovascular mortality” (ADA, 2018, p. 575). Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended as well. Nutrient dense carbs, whole unprocessed non-starchy vegetables, and eating less refined, highly processed carbs is recommended (ADA n.d.). NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

Short- and long-term effects of diabetes are short term, in the beginning of a patient’s diagnosis the patient may not need a lot of medication prescribed because the body may still be able to work on its own and be effective with diet and lifestyle changes. Long term as time goes on the patient may need more medications to control blood sugar levels. “There may be increased complications to body and other systems (cardiovascular, kidneys) there may also be side effects of the medication for example metformin is associated with B12 deficiency” (ADA, 2018). NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

References

  • American Diabetes Association (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.diabetes.org/nutrition
  • American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment:
  • Standards of medical care in diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73-S85.
  • Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf
  • Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J.R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice
  • Nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp.397-398)

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

Eight major glands make up the body’s endocrine system, which has an impact on things like mood, metabolism, sexual function, and growth and development (National Institutes of Health). Diabetes, Hashimoto’s disease, and hypothyroidism are some of the most frequently identified endocrine disorders. It should come as no surprise that treating one endocrine disorder may have an impact on the functioning of other body systems. NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

Treatment of patients who may have endocrine disorders as an advanced practice nurse necessitates a profound comprehension of the composition and operation of the endocrine system. Having a thorough understanding of patient characteristics and behaviors will also help you create the most effective drug therapy programs for your patients. Endocrine disorders that are frequently identified include

This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management. NURS 6521 UM Wk 5 Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism Discussion

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Next Discussion: NURS 6521 Week 6