NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

 

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

QUESTION 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).
A.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Permalink: https://nursingpaperessays.com/nurs-6630-psycho…assignment-paper/ ‎

“You have to take your medication to become stable.”

BUY NURS 6630 EXAM PAPER HERE

1 points

QUESTION 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

The neurotransmitter serotonin is directly linked to depression. Following this discovery, the antidepressant Prozac was developed.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

1 points

QUESTION 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?
A.

Transcription factor must bind to the regulatory region within the cell’s nucleus.

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?
A.

Genes impact neuron functioning directly.

1 points

QUESTION 6

Though medications have the ability to target neurotransmitters in the synapse, it is not always necessary. The PMHNP understands that this is because:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 7

Why is the cytochrome P450 enzyme system of significance to the PMHNP?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 8

It is important for the PMHNP to recognize differences in pharmacokinetics to safely prescribe and monitor medications. Which of the following statements does the competent PMHNP identify as true?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

1 points

QUESTION 9

As it relates to G-protein linked receptors, what does the PMHNP understand about medications that are used in practice?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

D.

Medications used in practice may act as inverse agonists if the dosage is too high.

1 points

QUESTION 10

The PMHNP is considering prescribing a 49-year-old male clozapine (Clozaril) to treat his schizophrenia and suicidal ideations. The PMHNP is aware that which factor may impact the dose needed to effectively treat his condition:NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper
The patient has chronic kidney disease, stage 2.

D.

Question 20

A patient recovering from shingles presents with tenderness and sensitivity to the upper back. He states it is bothersome to put a shirt on most days. This patient has end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is scheduled to have hemodialysis tomorrow but states that he does not know how he can lie in a recliner for 3 hours feeling this uncomfortable. What will be the PMHNP’s priority?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) order herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody testing

d) Prescribe hydromorphone (dilaudid) 2mg

Question 21

The PMHNP prescribed a patient lamotrigine (Lamictal), 25 mg by mouth daily, for nerve pain 6 months ago. The patient suddenly presents to the office with the complaint that the medication is no longer working and complains of increased pain. What action will the PMHNP most likely take?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) Order gabapentin, 100mg TID because lamotrigine is no longer working for this patient

d) Order a CBC to assess for an infection

Question 22

An elderly woman with a hx of alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction had a fall at home 3 months ago that resulted in her receiving an open reduction internal fixation. While assessing this patient, the pmhnp is made aware that the patient continues to experience mild to moderate pain. What is the pmhnp most likely to do?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) order an X-ray because it is possible that she dislocated her hip

b) order ibuprofen because she mayneed long term treatment and chronic pain is not uncommon

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 23

The PMHNP is assessing a 49-year-old male with a history of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcoholism with malnutrition, diabetes mellitus type 2, and hypertension. His physical assessment is unremarkable with the exception of peripheral edema bilaterally to his lower extremities and a chief complaint of pain with numbness and tingling to each leg 5/10. The PMHNP starts this patient on a low dose of doxepin (Sinequan). What is the next action that must be taken by the PMHNP?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Orders liver function tests

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) Order BUN/Creatinine test

Question 24

The PMHNP is evaluating a 30-year-old female patient who states that she notices pain and a drastic change in mood before the start of her menstrual cycle. The patient states that she has tried diet and lifestyle changes but nothing has worked. What will the PMHNP most likely do?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Prescribe estrin FE 24 birth control

b) Prescribe Ibuprofen 800mg every 8 hours as needed for pain

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 25

A patient with chronic back pain has been prescribed a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). How does the PMHNP describe the action of SNRIs on the inhibition of pain to the patient?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) “the SNRI can reduce brain atrophy by slowing the gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex”

d) “the SNRI can increase neurotransmission to descending neurons”

Question 26

A patient with fibromyalgia and major depression needs to be treated for symptoms of pain. Which is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe for this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Duloxetine (Cymbalta)

c) Clozapine (Clozaril)

d) Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Question 27

The PMHNP prescribes gabapentin (Neurontin) for a patient’s chronic pain. How does the PMHNP anticipate the drug to work?

a) It will bind to the alpha-2-delta ligand subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels

b) It will induce synaptic changes, including sprouting

c) It will act on the presynaptic neuron to trigger sodium influx

d) It will Inhibit activity of dorsal horn neurons to suppress body input from reaching the brain

Question 28

Mrs. Rosen is a 49-year-old patient who is experiencing fibro-fog. What does the PMHNP prescribe for Mrs. Rosen to improve this condition?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Armodafinil (Nuvigil)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 29

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with fibromyalgia. Which second-line treatment does the PMHNP select that may be effective for managing this patient’s pain?

a) Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

b) Viloxazine (Vivalan)

Question 30

The PMHNP is attempting to treat a patient’s chronic pain by having the agent bind the open channel conformation of VSCCs to block those channels with a “use-dependent” form of inhibition. Which agent will the PMHNP most likely select?

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

d) Atomoxetine (Strattera)

Question 31

A patient with irritable bowel syndrome reports chronic stomach pain. The PMHNP wants to prescribe the patient an agent that will cause irrelevant nociceptive inputs from the pain to be ignored and no longer perceived as painful. Which drug will the PMHNP prescribe?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

b) Gabapentin (Neurontin)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 32

The PMHNP wants to use a symptom-based approach to treating a patient with fibromyalgia. How does the PMHNP go about treating this patient?

a) Prescribing the patient an agent that ignores the painful symptoms by initiating a reaction known as “fibro-fog”

b) Targeting the patient’s symptoms with anticonvulsants that inhibits gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

c) Mzatching the patient’s symptoms with the malfunctioning brain circuits and neurotransimitters that might mediate those symptoms

d) None of the above

Question 33

The PMHNP is working with the student to care for a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. The student asks the PMHNP why SSRIs are not consistently useful in treating this particular patient’s pain. What is the best response by the PMHNP?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

c) “SSRIs only increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels”

d) “SSRIs do not increase serotonin or norepinephrine levels”

Question 34

A patient with gambling disorder and no other psychiatric comorbidities is being treated with pharmacological agents. Which drug is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe?

a) Antipsychotics

b) Lithium

Question 35

Kevin is an adolescent who has been diagnosed with kleptomania. His parents are interested in seeking pharmacological treatment. What does the PMHNP tell the parents regarding his treatment options?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) “Naltrexone may be an appropriate option to discuss”

b) “there are many medicine options that treat Kleptomania”

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 36

Which statement best describes a pharmacological approach to treating patients for impulsive aggression?

a) Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers can eradicate limbic irritability

b) Atypical antipsychotics can increase subcortical dopaminergic stimulation

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 37

A patient with hypersexual disorder is being assessed for possible pharmacologic treatment. Why does the PMHNP prescribe an antiandrogen for this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) It will prevent feelings of euphoria

b) It will amplify impulse control

c) It will block testosterone

d) It will redirect the patient to think about other things

Question 38

Mrs. Kenner is concerned that her teenage daughter spends too much time on the Internet. She inquires about possible treatments for her daughter’s addiction. Which response by the PMHNP demonstrates understanding of pharmacologic approaches for compulsive disorders?

a) “Compulsive internet use can be treated similarly to how we treat people with substance use disorders”

b) “internet addiction is treated with drugs that help block the tension/arousal state your daughter experiences”

Question 39

Mr. Peterson is meeting with the PMHNP to discuss healthier dietary habits. With a BMI of 33, Mr. Peterson is obese and needs to modify his food intake. “Sometimes I think I’m addicted to food the way some people are addicted to drugs”, he says. Which statement best describes the neurobiological parallels between food and drug addiction?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) There is decreased activation of the prefrontal cortex

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) There are amplified reward circuits that activate upon consumption

Question 40

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who reports excessive arousal at nighttime. What could the PMHNP use for a time-limited duration to shift the patient’s brain from a hyperactive state to a sleep state?

a) Histamine 2 receptor antagonist

b) Benzodiazepines

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 41

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who experiences too much overstimulation and anxiety during daytime hours. The patient agrees to a pharmacological treatment but states, “I don’t want to feel sedated or drowsy from the medicine.” Which decision made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper knowledge of this patient’s symptoms and appropriate treatment options?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Avoiding prescribing the patient a drug that blocks H1 receptors

b) Prescribing the patient a drug that acts on H2 receptors

c) Stopping the patient from taking medicine that unblocks H1 receptors

d) None of the above

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

QUESTION 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).
A.

“You have to take your medication to become stable.”

BUY NURS 6630 EXAM PAPER HERE

1 points

QUESTION 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

The neurotransmitter serotonin is directly linked to depression. Following this discovery, the antidepressant Prozac was developed.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

1 points

QUESTION 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?
A.

Transcription factor must bind to the regulatory region within the cell’s nucleus.

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper
A.

Genes impact neuron functioning directly.

1 points

QUESTION 6

Though medications have the ability to target neurotransmitters in the synapse, it is not always necessary. The PMHNP understands that this is because:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 7

Why is the cytochrome P450 enzyme system of significance to the PMHNP?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 8

It is important for the PMHNP to recognize differences in pharmacokinetics to safely prescribe and monitor medications. Which of the following statements does the competent PMHNP identify as true?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

1 points

QUESTION 9

As it relates to G-protein linked receptors, what does the PMHNP understand about medications that are used in practice?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

D.

Medications used in practice may act as inverse agonists if the dosage is too high.

1 points

QUESTION 10

The PMHNP is considering prescribing a 49-year-old male clozapine (Clozaril) to treat his schizophrenia and suicidal ideations. The PMHNP is aware that which factor may impact the dose needed to effectively treat his condition:
The patient has chronic kidney disease, stage 2.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

D.

Question 20

A patient recovering from shingles presents with tenderness and sensitivity to the upper back. He states it is bothersome to put a shirt on most days. This patient has end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is scheduled to have hemodialysis tomorrow but states that he does not know how he can lie in a recliner for 3 hours feeling this uncomfortable. What will be the PMHNP’s priority?

a) order herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody testing

d) Prescribe hydromorphone (dilaudid) 2mg

Question 21

The PMHNP prescribed a patient lamotrigine (Lamictal), 25 mg by mouth daily, for nerve pain 6 months ago. The patient suddenly presents to the office with the complaint that the medication is no longer working and complains of increased pain. What action will the PMHNP most likely take?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) Order gabapentin, 100mg TID because lamotrigine is no longer working for this patient

d) Order a CBC to assess for an infection

Question 22

An elderly woman with a hx of alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction had a fall at home 3 months ago that resulted in her receiving an open reduction internal fixation. While assessing this patient, the pmhnp is made aware that the patient continues to experience mild to moderate pain. What is the pmhnp most likely to do?

a) order an X-ray because it is possible that she dislocated her hip

b) order ibuprofen because she mayneed long term treatment and chronic pain is not uncommon

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 23

The PMHNP is assessing a 49-year-old male with a history of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcoholism with malnutrition, diabetes mellitus type 2, and hypertension. His physical assessment is unremarkable with the exception of peripheral edema bilaterally to his lower extremities and a chief complaint of pain with numbness and tingling to each leg 5/10. The PMHNP starts this patient on a low dose of doxepin (Sinequan). What is the next action that must be taken by the PMHNP?

a) Orders liver function tests

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) Order BUN/Creatinine test

Question 24

The PMHNP is evaluating a 30-year-old female patient who states that she notices pain and a drastic change in mood before the start of her menstrual cycle. The patient states that she has tried diet and lifestyle changes but nothing has worked. What will the PMHNP most likely do?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Prescribe estrin FE 24 birth control

b) Prescribe Ibuprofen 800mg every 8 hours as needed for pain

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 25

A patient with chronic back pain has been prescribed a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). How does the PMHNP describe the action of SNRIs on the inhibition of pain to the patient?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) “the SNRI can reduce brain atrophy by slowing the gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex”

d) “the SNRI can increase neurotransmission to descending neurons”

Question 26

A patient with fibromyalgia and major depression needs to be treated for symptoms of pain. Which is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe for this patient?

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Duloxetine (Cymbalta)

c) Clozapine (Clozaril)

d) Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Question 27

The PMHNP prescribes gabapentin (Neurontin) for a patient’s chronic pain. How does the PMHNP anticipate the drug to work?

a) It will bind to the alpha-2-delta ligand subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels

b) It will induce synaptic changes, including sprouting

c) It will act on the presynaptic neuron to trigger sodium influx

d) It will Inhibit activity of dorsal horn neurons to suppress body input from reaching the brain

Question 28

Mrs. Rosen is a 49-year-old patient who is experiencing fibro-fog. What does the PMHNP prescribe for Mrs. Rosen to improve this condition?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Armodafinil (Nuvigil)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 29

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with fibromyalgia. Which second-line treatment does the PMHNP select that may be effective for managing this patient’s pain?

a) Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

b) Viloxazine (Vivalan)

Question 30

The PMHNP is attempting to treat a patient’s chronic pain by having the agent bind the open channel conformation of VSCCs to block those channels with a “use-dependent” form of inhibition. Which agent will the PMHNP most likely select?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

d) Atomoxetine (Strattera)

Question 31

A patient with irritable bowel syndrome reports chronic stomach pain. The PMHNP wants to prescribe the patient an agent that will cause irrelevant nociceptive inputs from the pain to be ignored and no longer perceived as painful. Which drug will the PMHNP prescribe?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

b) Gabapentin (Neurontin)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 32

The PMHNP wants to use a symptom-based approach to treating a patient with fibromyalgia. How does the PMHNP go about treating this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Prescribing the patient an agent that ignores the painful symptoms by initiating a reaction known as “fibro-fog”

b) Targeting the patient’s symptoms with anticonvulsants that inhibits gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

c) Mzatching the patient’s symptoms with the malfunctioning brain circuits and neurotransimitters that might mediate those symptoms

d) None of the above

Question 33

The PMHNP is working with the student to care for a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. The student asks the PMHNP why SSRIs are not consistently useful in treating this particular patient’s pain. What is the best response by the PMHNP?

c) “SSRIs only increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels”

d) “SSRIs do not increase serotonin or norepinephrine levels”

Question 34

A patient with gambling disorder and no other psychiatric comorbidities is being treated with pharmacological agents. Which drug is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Antipsychotics

b) Lithium

Question 35

Kevin is an adolescent who has been diagnosed with kleptomania. His parents are interested in seeking pharmacological treatment. What does the PMHNP tell the parents regarding his treatment options?

a) “Naltrexone may be an appropriate option to discuss”

b) “there are many medicine options that treat Kleptomania”

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 36

Which statement best describes a pharmacological approach to treating patients for impulsive aggression?

a) Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers can eradicate limbic irritability

b) Atypical antipsychotics can increase subcortical dopaminergic stimulation

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 37

A patient with hypersexual disorder is being assessed for possible pharmacologic treatment. Why does the PMHNP prescribe an antiandrogen for this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) It will prevent feelings of euphoria

b) It will amplify impulse control

c) It will block testosterone

d) It will redirect the patient to think about other things

Question 38

Mrs. Kenner is concerned that her teenage daughter spends too much time on the Internet. She inquires about possible treatments for her daughter’s addiction. Which response by the PMHNP demonstrates understanding of pharmacologic approaches for compulsive disorders?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) “Compulsive internet use can be treated similarly to how we treat people with substance use disorders”

b) “internet addiction is treated with drugs that help block the tension/arousal state your daughter experiences”

Question 39

Mr. Peterson is meeting with the PMHNP to discuss healthier dietary habits. With a BMI of 33, Mr. Peterson is obese and needs to modify his food intake. “Sometimes I think I’m addicted to food the way some people are addicted to drugs”, he says. Which statement best describes the neurobiological parallels between food and drug addiction?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) There is decreased activation of the prefrontal cortex

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) There are amplified reward circuits that activate upon consumption

Question 40

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who reports excessive arousal at nighttime. What could the PMHNP use for a time-limited duration to shift the patient’s brain from a hyperactive state to a sleep state?

a) Histamine 2 receptor antagonist

b) Benzodiazepines

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 41

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who experiences too much overstimulation and anxiety during daytime hours. The patient agrees to a pharmacological treatment but states, “I don’t want to feel sedated or drowsy from the medicine.” Which decision made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper knowledge of this patient’s symptoms and appropriate treatment options?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

a) Avoiding prescribing the patient a drug that blocks H1 receptors

b) Prescribing the patient a drug that acts on H2 receptors

c) Stopping the patient from taking medicine that unblocks H1 receptors

d) None of the above

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

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NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Accessible player

Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Week 3 discussion

Discussion: The Impact of Ethnicity on Antidepressant Therapy

Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders you will see in clinical practice. Treatment for this disorder, however, can vary greatly depending on client factors, such as ethnicity and culture. As a psychiatric mental health professional, you must understand the influence of these factors to select appropriate psychopharmacologic interventions. For this Discussion, consider how you might assess and treat the individuals in the case studies based on the provided client factors, including ethnicity and culture.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

amitriptylinE

bupropion

citalopram

clomipramine

desipramine

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #1: The man whose antidepressants stopped working

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #7: The case of physician do not heal thyself

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #29: The depressed man who thought he was out of options

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 7 discussion

Discussion: Sleep/Wake Disorders

It is not uncommon to experience a night or two of disrupted sleep when there is something major going on in your life. However, sleep/wake disorders are much more than an occasional night of disrupted sleep.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that between 50 and 70 million American have problems with sleep/wake disorders (CDC, 2015). Although the vast majority of Americans will visit their primary care provider for treatment of these disorders, many providers will refer patients for further evaluation. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat the individuals based on the provided client factors.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 11, “Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness and Their Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

alprazolam

amitriptyline

amoxapine

clomipramine

Case 1: Volume 2, Case #16: The woman who liked late-night TV

Case 2: Volume 2, Case #11: The figment of a man who looked upon the lady

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #5: The sleepy woman with anxiety

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 9 discussion

Discussion: Presentations of ADHD

Although ADHD is often associated with children, this disorder is diagnosed in clients across the lifespan. While many individuals are properly diagnosed and treated during childhood, some individuals who have ADHD only present with subsyndromal evidence of the disorder.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper These individuals are often undiagnosed until they reach adulthood and struggle to cope with competing demands of running a household, caring for children, and maintaining employment. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat individuals presenting with ADHD.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Clancy, C.M., Change, S., Slutsky, J., & Fox, S. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effectiveness of treatment in at-risk preschoolers; long-term effectiveness in all ages; and variability in prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Table B. KQ2: Long-term(>1 year) effectiveness of interventions for ADHD in people 6 years and older.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 12, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Mignon, L. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the ADHD tab.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 4, “ADHD Treatments”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

For ADHD

armodafinil

amphetamine (d)

amphetamine (d,l)

atomoxetine

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #13: The 8-year-old girl who was naughty

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Case 3: Volume 2, Case #21: Hindsight is always 20/20, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 10 discussion

Discussion: Influencing Social Change

Individuals with psychiatric mental health disorders are frequently stigmatized not only by society as a whole, but also by their friends, family, and sometimes healthcare providers. In your role, however, you have the opportunity to become a social change agent for these individuals. For this Discussion, consider how you might make a positive impact for your clients and advocate for social change within your own community.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Learning Objectives

Students will:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Apply strategies to become a social change agent for psychiatric mental health

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Angermeyer, M. C., Matschinger, H., & Schomerus, G. (2013). Attitudes towards psychiatric treatment and people with mental illness: Changes over two decades. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(2), 146–151. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/203/2/146.full

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Dingfelder, S. F. (2009). Stigma: Alive and well. American Psychological Association, 40(6), 56. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/06/stigma.aspx

Jenkins, J. H. (2012). The anthropology of psychopharmacology: Commentary on contributions to the analysis of pharmaceutical self and imaginary. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 36(1), 78–79. doi:10.1007/s11013-012-9248-0

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Price, L. H. (2010). Violence in America: Is psychopharmacology the answer? Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, 21(5), 5. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1556-7532

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Optional Resources

Bennett, T. (2015). Changing the way society understands mental health. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/April-2015/Changing-The-Way-Society-Understands-Mental-Health

Mechanic, D. (2007). Mental health services then and now. Health Affairs, 26(6), 1548–1550. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170605094514/http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/6/1548.full

Rothman, D. J. (1994). Shiny, happy people: The problem with “cosmetic psychopharmacology.” New Republic, 210(7), 34–38.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Reflect on how you might influence social change for psychiatric mental health.

Week 2 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders

When pediatric clients present with mood disorders, the process of assessing, diagnosing, and treating them can be quite complex. Children not only present with different signs and symptoms than adult clients with the same disorders, but they also metabolize medications much differently. NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment PaperAs a result, psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners must exercise caution when prescribing psychotropic medications to these clients. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting with mood disorders.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This Assignment is the first of 10 assignments that are based on interactive client case studies. For these assignments, you will be required to make decisions about how to assess and treat clients. Each of your decisions will have a consequence. Some consequences will be insignificant, and others may be life altering. You are not expected to make the “right” decision every time; in fact, some scenarios may not have a “right” decision. You are, however, expected to learn from each decision you make and demonstrate the ability to weigh risks versus benefits to prescribe appropriate treatments for clients.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline

bupropion

citalopram

clomipramine

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Magellan Health, Inc. (2013). Appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents: A clinical monograph. Retrieved from http://www.magellanhealth.com/media/445492/magellan-psychotropicdrugs-0203141.pdf

Rao, U. (2013). Biomarkers in pediatric depression. Depression & Anxiety, 30(9), 787–791. doi:10.1002/da.22171

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Vitiello, B. (2012). Principles in using psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. In J. M. Rey (Ed.), IACAPAP e-Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. Retrieved from http://iacapap.org/wp-content/uploads/A.7-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-072012.pdf

Poznanski, E., & Mokros, H. (1996). Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016e). Case study: An African American child suffering from depression [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

El Marroun, H., White, T., Verhulst, F., & Tiemeier, H. (2014). Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: A systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(10), 973–992. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0558-3

Gordon, M. S., & Melvin, G. A. (2014). Do antidepressants make children and adolescents suicidal? Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 50(11), 847–854. doi:10.1111/jpc.12655

Seedat, S. (2014)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . Controversies in the use of antidepressants in children and adolescents: A decade since the storm and where do we stand now? Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 26(2), iii–v. doi:10.2989/17280583.2014.938497

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat pediatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

At each decision point stop to complete the following:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 3 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Adult and Geriatric Clients With Mood Disorders

Advances in genetics and epigenetics have changed the traditional understanding of mood disorders, resulting in new evidence-based practices. In your role as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to continually educate yourself on new findings and best practices in the field. For this Assignment, you consider best practices for assessing and treating adult and geriatric clients presenting with mood disorders.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline

bupropion

citalopram

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marie_Asberg/publication/22697065_A_New_Depression_Scale_Designed_to_be_Sensitive_to_Change/links/09e41513f85c708fee000000.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016g). Case study: An elderly Hispanic man with major depressive disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment :

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 4 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients with With Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a unique disorder that causes shifts in mood and energy, which results in depression and mania for clients. Proper diagnosis of this disorder is often a challenge for two reasons: 1) clients often present as depressive or manic, but may have both; and 2) many symptoms of bipolar disorder are similar to other disorders. Misdiagnosis is common, making it essential for you to have a deep understanding of the disorder’s pathophysiology. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with bipolar disorder.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 8, “Mood Stabilizers”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009b). Stahl’s illustrated mood stabilizers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Mood Stabilizers tab.

Chapter 4, “Lithium and Various Anticonvulsants as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Chapter 5, “Atypical Antipsychotics as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Vitiello, B. (2013). How effective are the current treatments for children diagnosed with manic/mixed bipolar disorder? CNS Drugs, 27(5), 331-333. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0060-3

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Chen, R., Wang, H., Shi, J., Shen, K., & Hu, P. (2015). Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(7), 835-841. doi:10.1007/s00228-015-1855-6

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016f). Case study: An Asian American woman with bipolar disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Mostafavi, A., Solhi, M., Mohammadi, M., Hamedi, M., Keshavarzi, M., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2014). Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Medica Iranica, 52(10), 734-739.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Retrieved from http://acta.tums.ac.ir/index.php/acta

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring bipolar therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Week 5 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders

Common symptoms of anxiety disorders include chest pains, shortness of breath, and other physical symptoms that may be mistaken for a heart attack or other physical ailment. These manifestations often prompt clients to seek care from their primary care providers or emergency departments. Once it is determined that there is no organic basis for these symptoms, clients are typically referred to a psychiatric mental health practitioner for anxiolytic therapy. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with anxiety disorders.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 9, “Anxiety Disorder and Anxiolytics”

Stahl, S. M., & Grady, M. (2010). Stahl’s illustrated anxiety, stress, and PTSD. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD tab.

Chapter 4, “First-Line Medications for PTSD”

Chapter 5, “Second-Line, Adjunct, and Investigational Medications for PTSD”

Strawn, J. R., Wehry, A. M., DelBello, M. P., Rynn, M. A., & Strakowski, S. (2012). Establishing the neurobiologic basis of treatment in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 29(4), 328–-339. doi:10.1002/da.21913

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Hamilton, M. (1959). Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Psyctests, doi:10.1037/t02824-0

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016b). Case study: A middle-aged Caucasian man with anxiety [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Lupi, M., Martinotti, G., Acciavatti, T., Pettorruso, M., Brunetti, M., Santacroce, R., & … Di Giannantonio, M. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in gambling disorder: A qualitative review. Biomed Research International, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/537306

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Middle-Aged Caucasian Man With Anxiety. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 6 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brain’s normal processes, which interferes with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, clients may struggle to function in daily life. NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment PaperHowever, clients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with psychosis and schizophrenia.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 4, “Psychosis and Schizophrenia”

Chapter 5, “Antipsychotic Agents”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the following medications:

amisulpride

aripiprazole

asenapine

chlorpromazine

clozapine

flupenthixol

fluphenazine

haloperidol

iloperidone

loxapine

lurasidone

olanzapine

paliperidone

perphenazine

quetiapine

risperidone

sulpiride

thioridazine

thiothixene

trifluoperazine

ziprasidone

Naber, D., & Lambert, M. (2009). The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: Results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs, 23(8), 649-659. doi:10.2165/00023210-200923080-00002

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261-276.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Clozapine REMS. (2015). Clozapine REMS: The single shared system for clozapine. Retrieved from https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf

Walden University. (2016). ASC success strategies: Studying for and taking a test. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASCsuccess/ASCtesting

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016j). Case study: Pakistani woman with delusional thought processes [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Chakos, M., Patel, J. K., Rosenheck, R., Glick, I. D., Hammer, M. B., Tapp, A., & … Miller, D. (2011). Concomitant psychotropic medication use during treatment of schizophrenia patients: Longitudinal results from the CATIE study. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 5(3), 124-134. doi:10.3371/CSRP.5.3.2

Fangfang, S., Stock, E. M., Copeland, L. A., Zeber, J. E., Ahmedani, B. K., & Morissette, S. B. (2014). Polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: Trends in multiple health care systems. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 71(9), 728-738. doi:10.2146/ajhp130471NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Lin, L. A., Rosenheck, R., Sugar, C., & Zbrozek, A. (2015). Comparing antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia: A health state approach. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 86(1), 107-121. doi:10.1007/s11126-014-9326-2

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Week 7 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Pain

Pain can greatly influence an individual’s quality of life, as uncontrolled pain negatively impacts mood, concentration, and the overall physical and mental well-being of clients. Although pain can often be controlled with medications, the process of assessing and treating clients can be challenging because pain is such a subjective experience. Only the person experiencing the pain truly knows the intensity of the pain and whether there is a need for medication therapies. Sometimes, beliefs about pain and treatments for pain can have an adverse effect on the provider-client relationship. For this Assignment, as you examine the interactive case study consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with pain.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 10, “Chronic Pain and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009a). Stahl’s illustrated chronic pain and fibromyalgia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Chronic Pain and Fibromyalgia tab.

Chapter 5, “Pain Drugs”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

amitriptyline

amoxapine

carbamazepine

clomipramine

clonidine (adjunct)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

desipramine

dothiepin

doxepin

duloxetine

gabapentin

imipramine

lamotrigine

levetiracetam

lofepramine

maprotiline

memantine

milnacipran

nortriptyline

pregabalin

tiagabine

topiramate

trimipramine

valproate (divalproex)

zonisamide

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2016). Pain: Hope through research. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/detail_chronic_pain.htm#3084_2

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016a). Case study: A Caucasian man with hip pain [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for pain and sleep/wake disorders.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Decision #3 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 8 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction

Impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction are challenging disorders for clients across the lifespan. These disorders often manifest as negative behaviors, resulting in adverse outcomes for clients. In your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you have the opportunity to help clients address underlying causes of the disorders and overcome these behaviors. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 14, “Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction”

Stahl, S. M., & Grady, M. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated substance use and impulsive disorder New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders tab.

Chapter 10, “Disorders of Impulsivity and Compulsivity”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

For obsessive-compulsive disorder

Citalopram

clomipramine

escitalopram

fluoxetine

fluvoxamine

paroxetine

sertraline

venlafaxineNURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

vilazodone

For alcohol withdrawal

chlordiazepoxide

clonidine

clorazepate

diazepam

lorazepam

oxazepam

For bulimia nervosa and binge eating

fluoxetine

topiramate

zonisamide

For alcohol abstinence

acamprosate

disulfiram

For alcohol dependence

nalmefene

naltrexone

For opioid dependence

buprenorphine

naltrexone

For nicotine addiction

bupropion

varenicline

Book Excerpt: S.ubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 32. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64350/

Chapter 1, “Substance Use Among Adolescents”

Chapter 2, “Tailoring Treatment to the Adolescent’s Problem”

Chapter 7, “Youths with Distinctive Treatment Needs”

University of Michigan Health System. (2016). Childhood trauma linked to worse impulse control in adulthood, study finds. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160120201324.htm

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Grant, J. E., Odlaug, B. L., & Schreiber, L. N. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(2), 375–381. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04457.x

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Loreck, D., Brandt, N. J., & DiPaula, B. (2016). Managing opioid abuse in older adults: Clinical considerations and challenges. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(4), 10–15. doi:10.3928/00989134-20160314-04

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Salmon, J. M., & Forester, B. (2012). Substance abuse and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in older adults: A clinical case and review of the relevant literature. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 8(1), 74–84. doi:10.1080/15504263.2012.648439

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Sanches, M., Scott-Gurnell, K., Patel, A., Caetano, S. C., Zunta-Soares, G. B., Hatch, J. P., & … Soares, J. C. (2014). Impulsivity in children and adolescents with mood disorders and unaffected offspring of bipolar parents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(6), 1337–1341. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.018

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016c). Case study: A Puerto Rican woman with comorbid addiction [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adolescent clients requiring therapy for impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Puerto Rican Woman With Comorbid Addiction. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Week 9 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With ADHD

Not only do children and adults have different presentations for ADHD, but males and females may also have vastly different clinical presentations. They may also respond to medication therapies differently. For example, some ADHD medications may cause children to experience stomach pain, while others can be highly addictive for adults. In your role, as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must perform careful assessments and weigh the risks and benefits of medication therapies for clients across the lifespan. For this Assignment, you consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with ADHD. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: Review all materials from the Discussion.

Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. D. A., & Epstein, J. N. (1998). Revision and restandardization of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): Factors, structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 279-291.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016d). Case study: A young Caucasian girl with ADHD [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Week 10 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Dementia

The Alzheimer’s Association defines dementia as “a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). This term encompasses dozens of cognitive disorders of impaired memory formation, recall, and communication. The care and treatment of clients with dementia is dependent on multiple factors, including the stage of dementia, comorbidities, family support, and even the care setting. NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment PaperIn your role, as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must be prepared to not only treat clients with these various cognitive disorders, but also the multiple behavioral issues that often accompany them. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with dementia.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Reference: Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). What is dementia? Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 13, “Dementia and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

donepezil

galantamine

memantine

rivastigmine

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016h). Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Week 6 midterm

Question 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Question 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?

Question 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:

Question 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?

Question 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

In the era of mass emigration and eldering society nursing is a very valuable and desirable profession. Student on this course must possess specialist knowledge about organization of patients’ healthcare process, therapeutic procedures and techniques, emergency rescue, rehabilitation process, preventive treatment, education and promotion of healthy lifestyle.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper
Professional nurse should be prepared to make quick decisions during their day-to-day work.

The Nursing programme is designed to implement theory into practice. Huge amount of programme hours is dedicated to nursing practice in hospitals and clinics. Our programme will
provide you with a solid grounding in all the key areas necessary for successful completion of your studies. To operate effectively within the healthcare environment, nurses are required to be able to implement and evaluate change by contributing to the ongoing development on their field.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Total didactic hours: 4790.
Over 3700 hours in core study programmes group, including:

Midwifery, Gynaecology and Gynaecological Nursing
Paediatrics and Paediatrics Nursing
Internal Diseases and Internal Medicine Nursing
Surgery and Surgical Nursing
Rehabilitation and Nursing of the Disabled
Geriatrics and Geriatric Nursing
Neurology and Neurological Nursing
Psychiatry and Psychiatric Nursing
Anaesthesiology and Nursing in a Threat to Life
Palliative Care
Principles of Medical Rescue
Dietetics
Research in Nursing
Benefits to You
High Salary – being a nurse means being well paid
The program is adjusted to the job market – nurses are most wanted on job market in EU
The study in English gives you a better chance for a career and overcomes the boundaries opening global job market for you
Professional staff – teachers with practice
Certification Opportunities

Nursing is my passion. Thanks to the studies I expanded and updated my knowledge. Modern teaching methods at the university made me aware that in this profession you must develop the knowledge all the time.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Renata Smoluch (Nursing, 2nd year student)

How to apply for Nursing in English
Downlaod and fill in the Application Form 2019/2020 (PDF)
Scan of all the necessary documents (listed in Application Form)
Send all files to our e-mail address (listed below)
Wait to receive an Offer Letter (via e-mail)
Make payments
Wait to receive an Acceptance Letter (via post)
Get Visa (if necessary)
Tuition Fees
Application fee: € 150
Tuition fee for the first academic year:
candidates from: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan: 10,000 PLN
candidates from other countries: € 4000
All fees in euro currency must be transferred to the University’s bank account:

Name of the bank: Santander Bank Polska S.A. Oddzial 2 w Zamosciu
Address: Partyzantow 12, 22-400 Zamosc, Poland
SWIFT code: WBKPPLPP
IBAN/ Account number: PL02 1500 1807 1218 0002 5195 0000
Transfer title: please write your full name and date of birth

What will the PMHNP most likely prescribe to a patient with psychotic aggression who needs to manage the top-down cortical control and the excessive drive from striatal hyperactivity?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Stimulants B. Antidepressants C. Antipsychotics D. SSRIs

QUESTION 2

The PMHNP is selecting a medication treatment option for a patient who is exhibiting psychotic behaviors with poor impulse control and aggression. Of the available treatments, which can help temper some of the adverse effects or symptoms that are normally caused by D2 antagonism?

A. First-generation, conventional antipsychotics B. First-generation, atypical antipsychotics C. Second-generation, conventional antipsychotics D. Second-generation, atypical antipsychotics

QUESTION 3

The PMHNP is discussing dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and its association with aggressive behaviors in patients with the student. Why does the PMHNP prescribe a standard dose of atypical antipsychotics?

A. The doses are based on achieving 100% D2 receptor occupancy. B. The doses are based on achieving a minimum of 80% D2 receptor occupancy. C. The doses are based on achieving 60% D2 receptor occupancy. D. None of the above.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 4

Why does the PMHNP avoid prescribing clozapine (Clozaril) as a first-line treatment to the patient with psychosis and aggression?

A. There is too high a risk of serious adverse side effects. B. It can exaggerate the psychotic symptoms. C. Clozapine (Clozaril) should not be used as high-dose monotherapy. D. There is no documentation that clozapine (Clozaril) is effective for patients who are violent.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 5

The PMHNP is caring for a patient on risperidone (Risperdal). Which action made by the PMHNP exhibits proper care for this patient?

A. Explaining to the patient that there are no risks of EPS B. Prescribing the patient 12 mg/dail C. Titrating the dose by increasing it every 5–7 days D. Writing a prescription for a higher dose of oral risperidone (Risperdal) to achieve high D2 receptor occupancy

QUESTION 6

The PMHNP wants to prescribe Mr. Barber a mood stabilizer that will target aggressive and impulsive symptoms by decreasing dopaminergic neurotransmission. Which mood stabilizer will the PMHNP select? A. Lithium (Lithane) B. Phenytoin (Dilantin) C. Valproate (Depakote) D. Topiramate (Topamax)

QUESTION 7

The parents of a 7-year-old patient with ADHD are concerned about the effects of stimulants on their child. The parents prefer to start pharmacological treatment with a non-stimulant. Which medication will the PMHNP will most likely prescribe?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Strattera B. Concerta C. Daytrana D. Adderall

QUESTION 8

8 The PMHNP understands that slow-dose extended release stimulants are most appropriate for which patient with ADHD?

A. 8-year-old patient B. 24-year-old patient C. 55-year-old patient D. 82-year-old patient

QUESTION 9

A patient is prescribed D-methylphenidate, 10-mg extended-release capsules. What should the PMHNP include when discussing the side effects with the patient?

A. The formulation can have delayed actions when taken with food. B. Sedation can be a common side effect of the drug. C. The medication can affect your blood pressure. D. This drug does not cause any dependency.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 10

The PMHNP is teaching parents about their child’s new prescription for Ritalin. What will the PMHNP include in the teaching?

A. The second dose should be taken at lunch. B. There are no risks for insomnia. C. There is only one daily dose, to be taken in the morning. D. There will be continued effects into the evening.

QUESTION 11

A young patient is prescribed Vyvanse. During the follow-up appointment, which comment made by the patient makes the PMHNP think that the dosing is being done incorrectly?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. “I take my pill at breakfast.” B. “I am unable to fall asleep at night.” C. “I feel okay all day long.” D. “I am not taking my pill at lunch.”

QUESTION 12

A 14-year-old patient is prescribed Strattera and asks when the medicine should be taken. What does the PMHNP understand regarding the drug’s dosing profile?

A. The patient should take the medication at lunch. B. The patient will have one or two doses a day. C. The patient will take a pill every 17 hours. D. The dosing should be done in the morning and at night.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 13

The PMHNP is meeting with the parents of an 8-year-old patient who is receiving an initial prescription for D-amphetamine. The PMHNP demonstrates appropriate prescribing practices when she prescribes the following dose:NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. The child will be prescribed 2.5 mg. B. The child will be prescribed a 10-mg tablet. C. The child’s dose will increase by 2.5 mg every other week. D. The child will take 10–40 mg, daily.

QUESTION 14

A patient is being prescribed bupropion and is concerned about the side effects. What will the PMHNP tell the patient regarding bupropion?

A. Weight gain is not unusual. B. Sedation may be common. C. It can cause cardiac arrhythmias. D. It may amplify fatigue.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 15

Which patient will receive a lower dose of guanfacine?

A. Patient who has congestive heart failure B. Patient who has cerebrovascular disease C. Patient who is pregnant D. Patient with kidney disease

QUESTION 16

An 18-year-old female with a history of frequent headaches and a mood disorder is prescribed topiramate (Topamax), 25 mg by mouth daily. The PMHNP understands that this medication is effective in treating which condition(s) in this patient?

A. Migraines B. Bipolar disorder and depression C. Pregnancy-induced depression D. Upper back pain

QUESTION 17

The PMHNP is treating a patient for fibromyalgia and is considering prescribing milnacipran (Savella). When prescribing this medication, which action is the PMHNP likely to choose?

A. Monitor liver function every 6 months for a year and then yearly thereafter. B. Monitor monthly weight. C. Split the daily dose into two doses after the first day. D. Monitor for occult blood in the stool.

QUESTION 18

The PMHNP is assessing a patient she has been treating with the diagnosis of chronic pain. During the assessment, the patient states that he has recently been having trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep. Based on this information, what action is the PMHNP most likely to take?

A. Order hydroxyzine (Vistaril), 50 mg PRN or as needed B. Order zolpidem (Ambien), 5mg at bedtime C. Order melatonin, 5mg at bedtime D. Order quetiapine (Seroquel), 150 mg at bedtime

QUESTION 19

The PMHNP is assessing a female patient who has been taking lamotrigine (Lamictal) for migraine prophylaxis. After discovering that the patient has reached the maximum dose of this medication, the PMHNP decides to change the patient’s medication to zonisamide (Zonegran). In addition to evaluating this patient’s day-to-day activities, what should the PMHNP ensure that this patient understands?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Monthly blood levels must be drawn. B. ECG monitoring must be done once every 3 months. C. White blood cell count must be monitored weekly. D. This medication has unwanted side effects such as sedation, lack of coordination, and drowsiness.

QUESTION 20

A patient recovering from shingles presents with tenderness and sensitivity to the upper back. He states it is bothersome to put a shirt on most days. This patient has end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is scheduled to have hemodialysis tomorrow but states that he does not know how he can lie in a recliner for 3 hours feeling this uncomfortable. What will be the PMHNP’s priority?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Order herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody testing B. Order a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine STAT C. Prescribe lidocaine 5% D. Prescribe hydromorphone (Dilaudid) 2mg

QUESTION 21

The PMHNP prescribed a patient lamotrigine (Lamictal), 25 mg by mouth daily, for nerve pain 6 months ago. The patient suddenly presents to the office with the complaint that the medication is no longer working and complains of increased pain. What action will the PMHNP most likely take?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Increase the dose of lamotrigine (Lamictal) to 25 mg twice daily. B. Ask if the patient has been taking the medication as prescribed. C. Order gabapentin (Neurontin), 100 mg three times a day, because lamotrigine (Lamictal) is no longer working for this patient. D. Order a complete blood count (CBC) to assess for an infection.

QUESTION 22

An elderly woman with a history of Alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction had a fall at home 3 months ago that resulted in her receiving an open reduction internal fixation. While assessing this patient, the PMHNP is made aware that the patient continues to experience mild to moderate pain. What is the PMHNP most likely to do?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Order an X-ray because it is possible that she dislocated her hip. B. Order ibuprofen (Motrin) because she may need long-term treatment and chronic pain is not uncommon. C. Order naproxen (Naprosyn) because she may have arthritis and chronic pain is not uncommon. D. Order Morphine and physical therapy.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 23

The PMHNP is assessing a 49-year-old male with a history of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcoholism with malnutrition, diabetes mellitus type 2, and hypertension. His physical assessment is unremarkable with the exception of peripheral edema bilaterally to his lower extremities and a chief complaint of pain with numbness and tingling to each leg 5/10. The PMHNP starts this patient on a low dose of doxepin (Sinequan). What is the next action that must be taken by the PMHNP?

A. Orders liver function tests. B. Educate the patient on avoiding grapefruits when taking this medication. C. Encourage this patient to keep fluids to 1500 ml/day until the swelling subsides. D. Order a BUN/Creatinine test.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 24

The PMHNP is evaluating a 30-year-old female patient who states that she notices pain and a drastic change in mood before the start of her menstrual cycle. The patient states that she has tried diet and lifestyle changes but nothing has worked. What will the PMHNP most likely do? A. Prescribe Estrin FE 24 birth control B. Prescribe ibuprofen (Motrin), 800 mg every 8 hours as needed for pain C. Prescribe desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), 50 mg daily D. Prescribe risperidone (Risperdal), 2 mg TID

QUESTION 25

A patient with chronic back pain has been prescribed a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). How does the PMHNP describe the action of SNRIs on the inhibition of pain to the patient?

A. “The SNRI can increase noradrenergic neurotransmission in the descending spinal pathway to the dorsal horn.” B. “The SNRI can decrease noradrenergic neurotransmission in the descending spinal pathway to the dorsal horn.” C. “The SNRI can reduce brain atrophy by slowing the gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.” D. “The SNRI can increase neurotransmission to descending neurons.”

QUESTION 26

A patient with fibromyalgia and major depression needs to be treated for symptoms of pain. Which is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe for this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Venlafaxine (Effexor)

Duloxetine (Cymbalta)

Clozapine (Clozaril)

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

QUESTION 27

The PMHNP prescribes gabapentin (Neurontin) for a patient’s chronic pain. How does the PMHNP anticipate the drug to work?

A. It will bind to the alpha-2-delta ligand subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. B. It will induce synaptic changes, including sprouting. C. It will act on the presynaptic neuron to trigger sodium influx. D. It will inhibit activity of dorsal horn neurons to suppress body input from reaching the brain.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 28

Mrs. Rosen is a 49-year-old patient who is experiencing fibro-fog. What does the PMHNP prescribe for Mrs. Rosen to improve this condition? A. Venlafaxine (Effexor) B. Armodafinil (Nuvigil) C. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) D. All of the above

QUESTION 29

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with fibromyalgia. Which second-line treatment does the PMHNP select that may be effective for managing this patient’s pain?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Methylphenidate (Ritalin) B. Viloxazine (Vivalan) C. Imipramine (Tofranil) D. Bupropion (Wellbutrin

QUESTION 30

The PMHNP is attempting to treat a patient’s chronic pain by having the agent bind the open channel conformation of VSCCs to block those channels with a “use-dependent” form of inhibition. Which agent will the PMHNP most likely select?

A. Pregabalin (Lyrica) B. Duloxetine (Cymbalta) C. Modafinil (Provigil) D. Atomoxetine (Strattera)

QUESTION 31

A patient with irritable bowel syndrome reports chronic stomach pain. The PMHNP wants to prescribe the patient an agent that will cause irrelevant nociceptive inputs from the pain to be ignored and no longer perceived as painful. Which drug will the PMHNP prescribe?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Pregabalin (Lyrica) B. Gabapentin (Neurontin) C. Duloxetine (Cymbalta) D. B and C

QUESTION 32

The PMHNP wants to use a symptom-based approach to treating a patient with fibromyalgia. How does the PMHNP go about treating this patient?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Prescribing the patient an agent that ignores the painful symptoms by initiating a reaction known as “fibro-fog” B. Targeting the patient’s symptoms with anticonvulsants that inhibit gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex C. Matching the patient’s symptoms with the malfunctioning brain circuits and neurotransmitters that might mediate those symptoms D. None of the above

QUESTION 33

The PMHNP is working with the student to care for a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. The student asks the PMHNP why SSRIs are not consistently useful in treating this particular patient’s pain. What is the best response by the PMHNP?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. “SSRIs only increase norepinephrine levels.” B. “SSRIs only increase serotonin levels.” C. “SSRIs increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels.” D. “SSRIs do not increase serotonin or norepinephrine levels.”

QUESTION 34

A patient with gambling disorder and no other psychiatric comorbidities is being treated with pharmacological agents. Which drug is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe?

A. Antipsychotics B. Lithium C. SSRI D. Naltrexone

QUESTION 35

Kevin is an adolescent who has been diagnosed with kleptomania. His parents are interested in seeking pharmacological treatment. What does the PMHNP tell the parents regarding his treatment options?

A. “Naltrexone may be an appropriate option to discuss.” B. “There are many medicine options that treat kleptomania.” C. “Kevin may need to be prescribed antipsychotics to treat this illness.” D. “Lithium has proven effective for treating kleptomania.”

QUESTION 36

Which statement best describes a pharmacological approach to treating patients for impulsive aggression?

A. Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers can eradicate limbic irritability. B. Atypical antipsychotics can increase subcortical dopaminergic stimulation. C. Stimulants can be used to decrease frontal inhibition. D. Opioid antagonists can be used to reduce drive.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

QUESTION 37

A patient with hypersexual disorder is being assessed for possible pharmacologic treatment. Why does the PMHNP prescribe an antiandrogen for this patient?

A. It will prevent feelings of euphoria. B. It will amplify impulse control. C. It will block testosterone. D. It will redirect the patient to think about other things.

QUESTION 38

Mrs. Kenner is concerned that her teenage daughter spends too much time on the Internet. She inquires about possible treatments for her daughter’s addiction. Which response by the PMHNP demonstrates understanding of pharmacologic approaches for compulsive disorders?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. “Compulsive Internet use can be treated similarly to how we treat people with substance use disorders.” B. “Internet addiction is treated with drugs that help block the tension/arousal state your daughter experiences.” C. “When it comes to Internet addiction, we prefer to treat patients with pharmaceuticals rather than psychosocial methods.” D. “There are no evidence-based treatments for Internet addiction, but there are behavioral therapies your daughter can try.”

QUESTION 39

Mr. Peterson is meeting with the PMHNP to discuss healthier dietary habits. With a BMI of 33, Mr. Peterson is obese and needs to modify his food intake. “Sometimes I think I’m addicted to food the way some people are addicted to drugs,” he says. Which statement best describes the neurobiological parallels between food and drug addiction?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. There is decreased activation of the prefrontal cortex. B. There is increased sensation of the reactive reward system. C. There is reduced activation of regions that process palatability. D. There are amplified reward circuits that activate upon consumption.

QUESTION 40

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who reports excessive arousal at nighttime. What could the PMHNP use for a time-limited duration to shift the patient’s brain from a hyperactive state to a sleep state?

A. Histamine 2 receptor antagonist B. Benzodiazepines C. Stimulants D. Caffeine

QUESTION 41

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who experiences too much overstimulation and anxiety during daytime hours. The patient agrees to a pharmacological treatment but states, “I don’t want to feel sedated or drowsy from the medicine.” Which decision made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper knowledge of this patient’s symptoms and appropriate treatment options?NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

A. Avoiding prescribing the patient a drug that blocks H1 receptors B. Prescribing the patient a drug that acts on H2 receptors C. Stopping the patient from taking medicine that unblocks H1 receptors D.None of the above

QUESTION 42

The PMHNP is performing a quality assurance peer review of the chart of another PMHNP. Upon review, the PMHNP reviews the chart of an older adult patient in long-term care facility who has chronic insomnia. The chart indicates that the patient has been receiving hypnotics on a nightly basis. What does the PMHNP find problematic about this documentation?

A. Older adult patients are contraindicated to take hypnotics. B. Hypnotics have prolonged half-lives that can cause drug accumulation in the elderly. C. Hypnotics have short half-lives that render themselves ineffective for older adults. D. Hypnotics are not effective for “symptomatically masking” chronic insomnia in the elderly.

QUESTION 43

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with chronic insomnia who is worried about pharmacological treatment because the patient does not want to experience dependence. Which pharmacological treatment approach will the PMHNP likely select for this patient for a limited duration, while searching and correcting the underlying pathology associated with the insomnia?

A. Serotonergic hypnotics B. Antihistamines C. Benzodiazepine hypnotics D. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics

QUESTION 44

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with chronic insomnia who would benefit from taking hypnotics. The PMHNP wants to prescribe the patient a drug with an ultra-short half-life (1–3 hours). Which drug will the PMHNP prescribe?

A. Flurazepam (Dalmane) B. Estazolam (ProSom) C. Triazolam (Halcion) D. Zolpidem CR (Ambien)

QUESTION 45

The PMHNP is attempting to treat a patient’s chronic insomnia and wishes to start with an initial prescription that has a half-life of approximately 1–2 hours. What is the most appropriate prescription for the PMHNP to make?

A. Triazolam (Halcion) B. Quazepam (Doral) C. Temazepam (Restoril) D. Flurazepam (Dalmane)

QUESTION 46

A patient with chronic insomnia asks the PMHNP if they can first try an over-the-counter (OTC) medication before one that needs to be prescribed to help the patient sleep. Which is the best response by the PMHNP?

A. “There are no over-the-counter medications that will help you sleep.” B. “You can choose from one of the five benzo hypnotics that are approved in the United States.” C. “You will need to ask the pharmacist for a non-benzodiazepine medicine.” D. “You can get melatonin over the counter, which will help with sleep onset.”

QUESTION 47

A patient with chronic insomnia and depression is taking trazodone (Oleptro) but complains of feeling drowsy during the day. What can the PMHNP do to reduce the drug’s daytime sedating effects?

A. Prescribe the patient an antihistamine to reverse the sedating effects B. Increasing the patient’s dose and administer it first thing in the morning C. Give the medicine at night and lower the dose D. None of the above

QUESTION 48

The PMHNP is teaching a patient with a sleep disorder about taking diphenhydramine (Benadryl). The patient is concerned about the side effects of the drug. What can the PMHNP teach the patient about this treatment approach?

A. “It can cause diarrhea.” B. “It can cause blurred vision.” C. “It can cause increased salivation.” D. “It can cause heightened cognitive effects.”

QUESTION 49

Parents of a 12-year-old boy want to consider attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication for their son. Which medication would the PMHNP start?

Methylphenidate Amphetamine salts Atomoxetine All of the above could potentially treat their son’s symptoms.

QUESTION 50

An adult patient presents with a history of alcohol addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given these comorbidities, the PMHNP determines which of the following medications may be the best treatment option?

A. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) B. Amphetamine C. Atomoxetine (Strattera) D. Fluoxetine (Prozac)

QUESTION 51

An 8-year-old patient presents with severe hyperactivity, described as “ants in his pants.” Based on self-report from the patient, his parents, and his teacher; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is suspected. What medication is the PMNHP most likely to prescribe?

A. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) B. Clonidine (Catapres) C. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) D. Desipramine (Norpramin)

QUESTION 52

A 9-year-old female patient presents with symptoms of both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder. In evaluating her symptoms, the PMHNP determines that which of the following medications may be beneficial in augmenting stimulant medication?

A. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) B. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) C. Guanfacine ER (Intuniv) D. Atomoxetine (Strattera)

QUESTION 53

A PMHNP supervisor is discussing with a nursing student how stimulants and noradrenergic agents assist with ADHD symptoms. What is the appropriate response?

A. They both increase signal strength output dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). B. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are increased in the prefrontal cortex. C. Noradrenergic agents correct reductions in dopamine (DA) in the reward pathway leading to increased ability to maintain attention to repetitive or boring tasks and resist distractions. D. All of the above.

QUESTION 54

A 43-year-old male patient is seeking clarification about treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and how it differs from treating children, since his son is on medication to treat ADHD. The PMHNP conveys a major difference is which of the following?

A. Stimulant prescription is more common in adults. B. Comorbid conditions are more common in children, impacting the use of stimulants in children. C. Atomoxetine (Strattera) use is not advised in children. D. Comorbidities are more common in adults, impacting the prescription of additional agents.

QUESTION 55

A 26-year-old female patient with nicotine dependence and a history of anxiety presents with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on the assessment, what does the PMHNP consider?

A. ADHD is often not the focus of treatment in adults with comorbid conditions. B. ADHD should always be treated first when comorbid conditions exist. C. Nicotine has no reported impact on ADHD symptoms. D. Symptoms are often easy to treat with stimulants, given the lack of comorbidity with other conditions.

QUESTION 56

Which of the following is a true statement regarding the use of stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

A. In adults with both ADHD and anxiety, treating the anxiety with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or benzodiazepines and the ADHD with stimulants is most effective in treating both conditions. B. Signal strength output is increased by dialing up the release of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). C. In conditions where excessive DA activation is present, such as psychosis or mania, comorbid ADHD should never be treated with stimulants. D. High dose and pulsatile delivery of stimulants that are short acting are preferred to treat ADHD.

QUESTION 57

The PMHNP is providing a workshop for pediatric nurses, and a question is posed about noradrenergic agents to treat ADHD. Which of the following noradrenergic agents have norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) properties that can treat ADHD?

A. Desipramine (Norpramin) B. Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) C. Atomoxetine (Strattera) D. Both “A” & “C” E. “C” only

QUESTION 58

A 71-year-old male patient comes to an appointment with his 65-year-old wife. They are both having concerns related to her memory and ability to recognize faces. The PMNHP is considering prescribing memantine (Namenda) based on the following symptoms:

A. Amnesia, aphasia, apnea B. Aphasia, apraxia, diplopia C. Amnesia, apraxia, agnosia D. Aphasia, agnosia, arthralgia

QUESTION 59

The PMHNP evaluates a patient presenting with symptoms of dementia. Before the PMHNP considers treatment options, the patient must be assessed for other possible causes of dementia. Which of the following answers addresses both possible other causes of dementia and a rational treatment option for Dementia?

A. Possible other causes: hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis Possible treatment option: memantine B. Possible other causes: hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hyperparathyroidism Possible treatment option: donepezil C. Possible other causes: hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, niacin deficiency Possible treatment option: risperidone D. Possible other causes: hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, lupus erythematosus Possible treatment option: donepezil

QUESTION 60

A group of nursing students seeks further clarification from the PMHNP on how cholinesterase inhibitors are beneficial for Alzheimer’s disease patients. What is the appropriate response?

A. Acetylcholine (ACh) destruction is inhibited by blocking the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. B. Effectiveness of these agents occurs in all stages of Alzheimer’s disease. C. By increasing acetylcholine, the decline in some patients may be less rapid. D. Both “A” & “C.”

QUESTION 61

The PMHNP is assessing a patient who presents with elevated levels of brain amyloid as noted by positron emission tomography (PET). What other factors will the PMHNP consider before prescribing medication for this patient, and what medication would the PMHNP want to avoid given these other factors?

A. ApoE4 genotype and avoid antihistamines if possible B. Type 2 diabetes and avoid olanzapine C. Anxiety and avoid methylphenidate D. Both “A” & “B”

QUESTION 62

A 72-year-old male patient is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. The PMHNP determines that improving memory is a key consideration in selecting a medication. Which of the following would be an appropriate choice?

A. Rivastigmine (Exelon) B. Donepezil (Aricept) C. Galantamine (Razadyne) D. All of the above

QUESTION 63

A 63-year-old patient presents with the following symptoms. The PMHNP determines which set of symptoms warrant prescribing a medication? Select the answer that is matched with an appropriate treatment.

A. Reduced ability to remember names is most problematic, and an appropriate treatment option is memantine. B. Impairment in the ability to learn and retain new information is most problematic, and an appropriate treatment option would be donepezil. C. Reduced ability to find the correct word is most problematic, and an appropriate treatment option would be memantine. D. Reduced ability to remember where objects are most problematic, and an appropriate treatment option would be donepezil.

QUESTION 64

A 75-year-old male patient diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease presents with agitation and aggressive behavior. The PMHNP determines which of the following to be the best treatment option?

A. Immunotherapy B. Donepezil (Aricept) C. Haloperidol (Haldol) D. Citalopram (Celexa) or Escitalopram (Lexapro)

QUESTION 65

The PMHNP has been asked to provide an in-service training to include attention to the use of antipsychotics to treat Alzheimer’s. What does the PMHNP convey to staff?

A. The use of antipsychotics may cause increased cardiovascular events and mortality. B. A good option in treating agitation and psychosis in Alzheimer’s patients is haloperidol (Haldol). C. Antipsychotics are often used as “chemical straightjackets” to over-tranquilize patients. D. Both “A” & “C.”

QUESTION 66

An 80-year-old female patient diagnosed with Stage II Alzheimer’s has a history of irritable bowel syndrome. Which cholinergic drug may be the best choice for treatment given the patient’s gastrointestinal problems?

A. Donepezil (Aricept) B. Rivastigmine (Exelon) C. Memantine (Namenda) D. All of the above

QUESTION 67

The PMHNP understands that bupropion (Wellbutrin) is an effective way to assist patients with smoking cessation. Why is this medication effective for these patients?

A. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) releases the dopamine that the patient would normally receive through smoking. B. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) assists patients with their cravings by changing the way that tobacco tastes. C. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) blocks dopamine reuptake, enabling more availability of dopamine. D. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) works on the mesolimbic neurons to increase the availability of dopamine.

QUESTION 68

Naltrexone (Revia), an opioid antagonist, is a medication that is used for which of the following conditions?

A. Alcoholism B. Chronic pain C. Abuse of inhalants D. Mild to moderate heroin withdrawal

QUESTION 69

A patient addicted to heroin is receiving treatment for detoxification. He begins to experience tachycardia, tremors, and diaphoresis. What medication will the PMHNP prescribe for this patient?

A. Phenobarbital (Luminal) B. Methadone (Dolophine) C. Naloxone (Narcan) D. Clonidine (Catapres)

QUESTION 70

A patient diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder has been taking a high-dose SSRI and is participating in therapy twice a week. He reports an inability to carry out responsibilities due to consistent interferences of his obsessions and compulsions. The PMHNP knows that the next step would be which of the following?

A. Decrease his SSRI and add buspirone (Buspar). B. Decrease his SSRI and add an MAOI. C. Decrease his SSRI steadily until it can be discontinued then try an antipsychotic to manage his symptoms. D. Keep his SSRI dosage the same and add a low-dose TCA.

QUESTION 71

The PMHNP is assessing a patient who will be receiving phentermine (Adipex-P)/topiramate (Topamax) (Qsymia). Which of the following conditions/diseases will require further evaluation before this medication can be prescribed?

A. Kidney disease stage II B. Obesity C. Cardiovascular disease D. Diabetes type II

QUESTION 72

The PMHNP prescribes an obese patient phentermine (Adipex-p)/topiramate ER (Topamax) (Qsymia), Why is topiramate (Topamax) often prescribed with phentermine (Adipex-P)?

A. Phentermine (Adipex-P) dose can be increased safely when taken with an anticonvulsant. B. Phentermine (Adipex-P) works by suppressing appetite while topiramate (Topamax) acts by inhibiting appetite. C. Topiramate (Topamax) potentiates appetite suppression achieved by phentermine (Adipex-P). D. Topiramate (Topamax) helps prevent the unwanted side effects of phentermine (Adipex-P).

QUESTION 73

The PMHNP is assessing a patient who has expressed suicidal intent and is now stating that he is hearing voices and sees people chasing him. The PMHNP identifies these symptoms to be associated with which of the following?

A. Barbiturate intoxication B. Marijuana intoxication C. “Bath salt” intoxication D. Cocaine intoxication

QUESTION 74

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who openly admitted to drinking a quart of vodka daily. Prior to prescribing this patient disulfiram (Antabuse), it is important for the PMHNP to:

A. Evaluate the patient’s willingness to abstain from alcohol B. Counsel the patient on dietary restrictions C. Obtain liver function tests D. Assess for addiction to opioids

QUESTION 75 An opioid-naive patient is taking MS Contin (morphine sulfate) to treat his pain that is secondary to cancer. Under what circumstances would the PMHNP order naloxone (Narcan) IM/SQ?

A. The patient’s speech is slurred, and he is in and out of sleep. B. The patient’s appetite has decreased from eating 100% of his meal to 50% of his meal. C. The patient complains of not having a bowel movement for 4 days. D. The patient’s vital signs are 98.4F temp, 88 pulse, 104/62 blood pressure, and 8 respirations.

QUESTION 76

When completing this exam, did you comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct including the expectations for academic integrity?

Yes No

NURS 6630 Midterm Exam (2018): Walden University

QUESTION 1

1. A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).

A.

“You have to take your medication to become stable.”

B.

“Most medications will increase the number of neurotransmitters that you already have in the brain.”

C.

“Most medications used in treatment are either increasing or decreasing neurotransmitters that your body already has.”

D.

“Why do you believe that your medication is poison?”

QUESTION 2

1. Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?

A.

Natural neurotransmitters such as endorphins have been discovered after the development of medications.

B.

Some medications were developed after the discovery and known action of the neurotransmitters in the brain.

C.

Neurotransmitters receive messages from most medications.

D.

The neurotransmitter serotonin is directly linked to depression. Following this discovery, the antidepressant Prozac was developed.

1 points

QUESTION 3

1. When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:

A.

“In an extreme case such as yours, more than one medication is often needed.”

B.

“Due to the ineffectiveness of your current medication, we need to try something else that can possibly potentiate its effects.

C.

“Medications are often specific to the neurotransmitter(s) they are affecting and, due to more than one neurotransmitter involvement, it is often necessary to use more than one medication to improve symptoms.”

D.

“I understand your concern. We can discontinue your current medication and switch to a different one that may better manage your symptoms.”

1 points

QUESTION 4 ?

1. During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?

A.

Transcription factor must bind to the regulatory region within the cell’s nucleus.

B.

RNA must be converted to mRNA.

C.

The coding region must separate from the regulatory region. This is wrong

D.

RNA polymerase must inhibit the process of changing RNA to mRNA.

1 points

QUESTION 5

1. While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?

A.

Genes impact neuron functioning directly.

B.

Changes made to proteins lead to changes in behavior.

C.

Neurons are able to impact protein synthesis.

D.

Genes impact the DNA of a cell, leading to changes in behavior.

1 points

QUESTION 6

1. Though medications have the ability to target neurotransmitters in the synapse, it is not always necessary. The PMHNP understands that this is because:

A.

Neurotransmission that occurs via the axon allows for transport of a neurotransmitter.

B.

Active transport is a different type of energy that allows the transport of certain neurotransmitters.

C.

Neurotransmitters can spread by diffusion.

D.

The postsynaptic neuron can release the neurotransmitter.

1 points

QUESTION 7

1. Why is the cytochrome P450 enzyme system of significance to the PMHNP?

A.

The kidneys play a role with excretion of the medication, and if a patient has kidney damage, the dose must be increased to be effective.

B.

The bioavailability of the medication after it passes through the stomach and liver can be altered. Correct answer

C.

The medication’s chemical composition changes when it comes in contact with the acid in the stomach.

D.

The CYP enzyme system is a steady and predictable process that prescribers must understand to treat conditions effectively.

1 points

QUESTION 8

1. It is important for the PMHNP to recognize differences in pharmacokinetics to safely prescribe and monitor medications. Which of the following statements does the competent PMHNP identify as true?

A.

About 1 out of 5 Asians requires lower-than-normal doses of some antidepressants and antipsychotics.

B.

The term polymorphic refers to the body’s ability to break a medication down several ways, and this patient may require higher doses of certain antidepressants and antipsychotics.

C.

About 1 out of 30 Caucasians requires lower doses of some antidepressants and antipsychotics.

D.

Most enzyme pathways do not have interactions between the newer medications.

1 points

QUESTION 9

1. As it relates to G-protein linked receptors, what does the PMHNP understand about medications that are used in practice?

A.

Most medications that act on G-protein linked receptors have antagonistic traits.

B.

The majority of medications used in practice are full agonists and are used to stimulate the body’s natural neurotransmitters.

C.

Most medications act as partial agonists because they allow the body to use only what is needed.

D.

Medications used in practice may act as inverse agonists if the dosage is too high.

1 points

QUESTION 10

1. The PMHNP is considering prescribing a 49-year-old male clozapine (Clozaril) to treat his schizophrenia and suicidal ideations. The PMHNP is aware that which factor may impact the dose needed to effectively treat his condition:

A.

The patient smokes cigarettes.

B.

The patient has hypertension.

C.

The patient has chronic kidney disease, stage 2.

D.

The patient drinks a cup of coffee a day.

1 points

QUESTION 11

1. A patient is diagnosed with bipolar disorder and is currently taking carbamazepine (Tegretol), aripiprazole (Abilify), and melatonin. The PMHNP has just written an order to discontinue the carbamazepine (Tegretol) for drug-induced thrombocytopenia. The PMHNP is aware that his next best action is to:

A.

Alert staff to possible seizures

B.

Write an order for a different moodstabilizer

C.

Decrease the amount prescribed for aripiprazole (Abilify)

D.

Explain to the patient that it will be more difficult to control his temper

1 points

QUESTION 12

1. A patient recently transferred following a suicide attempt has a history of schizophrenia, depression, and fibromyalgia. He is currently taking Amitriptyline (Elavil), Lisinopril, aspirin, and fluoxetine (Prozac). Which is the best action for the PMHNP to take for this patient?

A.

Review Amitriptyline (Elavil) level

B.

Order a liver function test

C.

Check the patient’s blood pressure and pulse

D.

Order a stat platelet count

1 points

QUESTION 13

1. A patient with schizophrenia is given an inverse agonist that acts on the receptor 5HT and neurotransmitter serotonin. What is the rationale for prescribing a medication such as this?

A.

To promote the availability of serotonin

B.

To decrease serotonin

C.

To indirectly increase the amount of dopamine in the body

D.

To help decrease the amount of serotonin and dopamine

1 points

QUESTION 14

1. The PMHNP is caring for four patients. Which patient statement indicates that benzodiazepines would be beneficial?

A.

“I have trouble staying asleep in the middle of the night.”

B.

“My spouse told me that I seem to have trouble remembering things sometimes.”

C.

“I really want to stop smoking, but the cravings are too strong.”

D.

“I feel nervous to go outside and be in large crowds.”

1 points

QUESTION 15

1. Ms. Harlow is a 42-year-old patient who is prescribed a drug that acts on ionotropic receptors. She is curious about the effects of the drug and how it will act on her symptoms. Which statement made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper understanding of Ms. Harlow’s prescription?

A.

“The drug will have an almost immediate effect.”

B.

“The drug can take a while to build up in your system.”

C.

“The drug is slow to release but lasts for a long time.”

D.

“The drug will make a subtle difference in your symptoms.”

1 points

QUESTION 16

1. A patient is seeking pharmacological treatment for smoking cessation. Which drug class does the PMHNP prescribe to the patient?

A.

Benzodiazepine

B.

Mirtazapine (Remeron)

C.

Ketamine

D.

Varenicline (Chantix)

1 points

QUESTION 17

1. The PMHNP is caring for a new patient who has been transferred from another office. When meeting with the new patient, the patient reports, “I feel like I am improving with the stabilizers.” The PMHNP immediately recognizes that the patient is describing which kind of drug?

A.

Full agonists

B.

Antagonists

C.

Partial agonists

D.

Inverse agonists

1 points

QUESTION 18

1. A patient presents with frequent episodes of mania. Which statement describes an appropriate treatment approach for this patient?

A.

“The patient needs to have an inverse agonist.”

B.

“The patient could benefit from an anticonvulsant.”

C.

“The patient’s calcium, sodium, chloride, and potassium levels must be regulated.”

D.

“The patient should have a drug that acts on ligand-gated ion channels.”

1 points

QUESTION 19

1. The PHMNP is caring for a patient who would benefit from nicotine cholinergic, serotonin 3, or glycine receptors. What kind of agent does the PHMNP want to prescribe for this patient?

A.

Ligand-gated ion channels with a pentameric structure

B.

Ligand-gated ion channels with a tetrameric structure

C.

Voltage-sensitive ion channels

D.

Anticonvulsants

1 points

QUESTION 20 ?

1. Which statement made by the patient suggests the patient will need to be treated with antipsychotics that target paranoid psychosis?

A.

“It’s my fault that all of this is happening. I don’t think I could ever forgive myself.”

B.

“I have to talk to the President because I’m the only one who can help him.”

C.

“I’m not sure why that lady is wearing a red jacket since it’s the dogs who need food.”

D.

“I don’t know that I even want to go to that meeting. It doesn’t seem worth it anymore.”

1 points

QUESTION 21

1. A patient has been treated with a number of novel psychotropic drugs. How is it theoretically possible to identify cognitive improvement in the patient using neuropsychological assessment batteries after the pharmacologic therapy? I did not have this question

A.

Obtaining raw normative metrics and using them to assess functionality

B.

Having the patient report on cognitive function based on personal experiences

C.

Monitoring the patient in a controlled setting

D.

Measuring symptoms of psychosis

1 points

QUESTION 22

1. Mr. McCullin is 64 years old with Parkinson’s disease. The PMHNP caring for Mr. McCullin wants to start him on a dopamine agonist to help manage and treat his condition. The PHMNP selects this agent because of which action it has on patients like Mr. McCullin?

A.

Dopamine is terminated through multiple mechanisms.

B.

The D2 autoreceptor regulates release of dopamine from the presynaptic neuron.

C.

MAO-B presents in the mitochondria within the presynaptic neuron.

D.

D2 receptors are the primary binding site for dopamine agonists.

1 points

QUESTION 23

1. Mrs. Trevor is a 44-year-old patient who does not have a diagnosis of schizophrenia but occasionally reports symptoms of psychosis, followed by severe fatigue. Mrs. Trevor inquires about the use of amphetamines to help with her energy levels. Which response made by the PMHNP is most appropriate?

A.

“Amphetamines may help you, as they can alleviate psychotic conditions.”

B.

“Amphetamines can inhibit negative symptoms of schizophrenia, so this might be a good choice for you.”

C.

“Amphetamines can cause hallucinations, so I would advise against this type of prescription.”

D.

“Amphetamines can lead to a dopamine deficiency, so I will not prescribe this for you.”

1 points

QUESTION 24

1. The PMHNP is caring for a patient with schizophrenia and is considering a variety of treatment approaches. The PHMNP selects a viable treatment that is consistent with the “dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.” What action does the PMHNP anticipate this treatment having on the patient?

A.

Blocking the release of dopamine facilitates the onset of positive schizophrenia symptoms.

B.

Hyperactivity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway mediates the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

C.

Antipsychotic drugs that open D2 receptor pathways can treat schizophrenia.

D.

The neuroanatomy of dopamine neuronal pathways can explain symptoms of schizophrenia.

1 points

QUESTION 25

1. A patient is diagnosed with schizophrenia. What increases the patient’s potential to mediate the cognitive symptoms of the disease?

A.

Achieving underactivity of the mesocorticol projections to the prefrontal cortex

B.

Achieving overactivity of the mesocorticol projections to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

C.

Achieving underactivity of the mesocortical projections to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

D.

Achieving overactivity of the mesocorticol projections to the prefrontal cortex

1 points

QUESTION 26

1. The PMNHP is assessing a 29-year-old patient who takes antipsychotics that block D2 receptors. What patient teaching should the PMHNP include related to the possible side effects of this type of drug?

A.

Hypersexuality

B.

Amenorrhea

C.

Dystonia

D.

Tardive dyskinesia

A.

1 points

QUESTION 27

1. The PMHNP is caring for a patient who is taking antipsychotics heard the psychiatrist tell the patient that the patient would be placed on a different antipsychotic agent. Which of the following requires the longest transition time for therapeutic benefit?

Olanzapine to clozapine

B.

Asenapine to Risperidone

C.

Aripripazole to ziprasidone

D.

Aripripazole to clozapine

1 points

QUESTION 28

1. The PMHNP is assessing a patient who has cirrhosis of the liver and anticipates that the patient will be prescribed an antipsychotic. Which medication does the PMHNP suspect will be ordered for this patient?

A.

Quetiapine

B.

Paliperidone

C.

Lurasidone

D.

Clozapine

1 points

QUESTION 29

1. Which statement made by the PMHNP exemplifies correct teaching of physiological effects in the body?

A.

Muscarinic antagonists are more likely to cause decreased prolactin levels.

B.

D2 antagonists decrease the likelihood of EPS symptoms.

C.

D2 antagonism is linked to antidepressant properties.

D.

D2 partial agonists are associated with increased efficacy in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

1 points

QUESTION 30

1. Mrs. Schwartzman is a 52-year-old patient with schizophrenia and no established history of depression. When meeting with the PMHNP, she presents with apathy and withdrawn social behavior, and she reports a loss of joy from enjoyable activities. What does the PMHNP infer from this encounter with the patient?

A.

An underlying depressive disorder

B.

The recent change of a 2nd generation antipsychotic to a conventional one

C.

The recent change of a 1st generation antipsychotic to a 2nd generation antipsychotic

D.

All of the above

1 points

QUESTION 31

1. The PMHNP is taking a history on a patient who has been on antipsychotics for many years. Which risk factors are most likely to contribute to a person developing tardive dyskinesia (TD)?

A.

Long-term use of antipsychotics

B.

Genetic disposition

C.

Age

D.

A and C

E.

All of the above

1 points

QUESTION 32

1. The student inquires about antipsychotic medications. Which response by the PMHNP describes nthe factors that contribute to reduced risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for patients who take antipsychotics?

A.

Those that are potent D2 antagonists

B.

Those that are potent D2 antagonists with 5HT2A antagonism properties

C.

D2 receptors that are blocked in the nigrostriatal pathway

D.

Potent D2 antagonists that block the muscarinic anti-M1 cholinergic receptors

1 points

QUESTION 33

1. Mr. Gordon is a middle-aged patient who is taking antipsychotics. When meeting with the PMHNP, he reports positive responses to the medication, stating, “I really feel as though the effects of my depression are going away.” Which receptor action in antipsychotic medications is believed to be the most beneficial in producing the effects described by Mr. Gordon?

A.

5HT2 antagonism

B.

D2 antagonism

C.

Alpha-2 antagonism

D.

D2 partial agonist

1 points

QUESTION 34

1. A patient who was recently admitted to the psychiatric nursing unit is being treated for bipolar disorder. Which neurotransmitter is the PMHNP most likely to target with pharmaceuticals?

A.

Norepinephrine

B.

Dopamine

C.

Serotonin

D.

A and C

E.

All of the above

1 points

QUESTION 35

1. Ms. Ryerson is a 28-year-old patient with a mood disorder. She recently requested to transfer to a new PMHNP, after not getting along well with her previous provider. The new PHMNP is reviewing Ms. Ryerson’s medical chart prior to their first appointment. Upon review, the PMHNP sees that the former provider last documented “patient had rapid poop out.” What does the PMHNP infer about the patient’s prescription based on this documentation?

A.

The patient has an unsustained response to antidepressants.

B.

The patient has antidepressant-induced hypomania.

C.

The patient has a depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters.

D.

The patient has an adverse effect to atypical antipsychotics.

1 points

QUESTION 36

1. The PMHNP recognizes that which patient would be contraindicated for antidepressant monotherapy?

A.

Patient with a bipolar I designation

B.

Patient with a bipolar II designation

C.

Patient with a bipolar III designation

D.

None of the above

1 points

QUESTION 37

1. Why does the PMHNP avoid treating a patient with cyclothymia, and has major depressive episodes, with antidepressant monotherapy?

A.

The patient may experience paranoid avoidant behavior.

B.

The patient may experience severe depression.

C.

The patient may experience auditory hallucinations.

D.

The patient may experience increased mood cycling.

1 points

QUESTION 38

1. The PMHNP is caring for a patient with the s genotype of SERT. What does the PMHNP understand regarding this patient’s response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/SNRI treatment?

A.

The patient has a higher chance of tolerating SSRI/SNRI treatment.

B.

The patient will have a positive response to SSRI/SNRI treatment.

C.

The patient will develop severe mood cycling in response to treatment.

D.

The patient may be less responsive or tolerant to the treatment.

1 points

QUESTION 39

1. Ms. Boeckh is a 42-year-old patient with major depression. The PMHNP understands that which action of norepinephrine will affect Ms. Boeckh’s serotonin levels?

A.

Norepinephrine potentiates 5HT release through a2 postsynaptic receptors.

B.

Norepinephrine inhibits 5HT release through a2 receptors.

C.

Norepinephrine inhibits α2 receptors on axon terminals.

D.

Norepinephrine potentiates 5HT release through a1 and a2 receptors.

1 points

QUESTION 40

1. Which statement made by the PMHNP correctly describes the relationship between NE neurons and pharmaceutical treatment?

A.

“Drugs inhibit the release of NE.”

B.

“Drugs can mimic the natural functioning of the NE neuron.”

C.

“Drugs are unable to simulate the effects of NE neurons.”

D.

“Drugs prevent the natural functioning of the NE neuron by stopping the presynaptic a2 neuron.”

1 points

QUESTION 41

1. The PMHNP is assessing a patient in the psychiatric emergency room. The patient tells the PMHNP that he does not understand why his depression has not lifted after being on four different antidepressants over the course of a year. Which of the following symptoms can be residual symptoms for patients who do not achieve remission with major depressive disorder?

A.

Insomnia

B.

Suicidal ideation

C.

Problems concentrating

D.

A and C

1 points

QUESTION 42

1. Fluoxetine (Prozac) has been prescribed for a patient. Which of the following statements is true regarding the action of this medication?

A.

Neuronal firing rates are not dysregulated in depression.

B.

Blocking the presynaptic SERT will immediately lead to a great deal of serotonin in many synapses.

C.

Upon the acute administration of a SSRI, 5HT decreases.

D.

The action at the somatodendritic end of the serotonin neuron may best explain the therapeutic action of SSRIs.

1 points

QUESTION 43

1. The nurse educator knows that teaching was effective when one of the students compares fluvoxamine to sertraline and notes which of the following similarities?

A.

Both have a sedative-like, calming effect.

B.

Both contribute to antipsychotic actions.

C.

Both demonstrate favorable findings in treating depression in the elderly.

D.

Both are known for causing severe withdrawal symptoms such as dizziness, restlessness, and akathisia.

1 points

QUESTION 44

1. A 45-year-old female patient with allergic rhinitis and normal blood pressure has had no reduction in depressive symptoms after trying bupropion, paroxetine, and venlafaxine. What precautions are needed in considering monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) in treating her depression?

A.

Since all MAOIs require dietary restrictions, the patient will need to avoid all cheeses and aged, smoked, or fermented meats.

B.

The patient cannot take any antihistamines.

C.

The patient cannot have two wisdom teeth extracted while on a MAnOI.

D.

The patient will need to minimize dietary intake of foods such as tap and unpasteurized beer, aged cheeses, and soy products/tofu.

1 points

QUESTION 45

1. After sitting in on an interdisciplinary treatment team meeting, the student nurse asks the instructor to explain a system-based approach to the treatment of depression. What is the appropriate response?

A.

Symptoms help create a diagnosis, then symptoms are deconstructed into a list of specific symptoms experienced by a patient.

B.

Symptoms are matched first with the brain circuits that hypothetically mediate them and then with the known neuropharmacological regulation of these circuits by neurotransmitters.

C.

Treatment options that target neuropharmacological mechanisms are selected to eliminate symptoms one by one.

D.

All of the above.

1 points

QUESTION 46

1. A 51-year-old female patient presents with symptoms of depression, including lack of motivation and difficulty sleeping. What risk factors would increase her vulnerability for a diagnosis of depression?

A.

First onset in puberty or early adulthood

B.

Late onset of menses

C.

Premenstrual syndrome

D.

A and C

1 points

QUESTION 47

1. A nurse overhears that a patient has failed single therapy with an SSRI and SNRI. She also learns that the patient has been on dual SSRI/SNRI therapy without adequate symptom control. She approaches the PMHNP and asks what the next treatment option could be in this seemingly treatment-resistant patient. The PMHNP tells the nurse she will treat the patient with the following regimen:

A.

MAOI plus SNRI

B.

SSRI/SNRI plus NDRI

C.

NDRI/SNRI plus mirtazapine

D.

NDRI plus modafinil

1 points

*Q/UESTION 48

1. Mrs. Radcliff is a 42-year-old patient who is considering stopping paroxetine. Why does her PMHNP advise against this abrupt discontinuation of the medicine?

A.

She may experience withdrawal symptoms.

B.

She may experience increased trauma.

C.

Effects of abrupt cessation are unknown.

D.

It can lead to difficulties with concentration.

1 points

QUESTION 49

1. A patient is prescribed fluoxetine but is concerned about the side effects. Which statement demonstrates accurate patient teaching when discussing the side effects associated with fluoxetine?

A.

Weight gain can be problematic.

B.

Sedation is very common.

C.

Induction of mania is rare.

D.

Seizures are not unusual.

1 points

QUESTION 50

1. The PMHNP is caring for a patient with anxiety who develops mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Which action does the PMHNP take regarding the use of venlafaxine?

A.

Stop the venlafaxine

B.

Lower the dose of venlafaxine by 50%

C.

Lower the dose of venlafaxine by 25-40%

D.

Increase the dose of venlafaxine by 50%

1 points

QUESTION 51

1. A 25-year-old female patient is being prescribed milnacipran to treat fibromyalgia, and expresses concern regarding “how she will feel and look” from taking the medicine. Which statement correctly describes the side effects as a result of taking this medication?

A.

It can affect her menstruation.

B.

Suicidality can be common among young adults.

C.

Sedation may be problematic.

D.

Weight gain is unusual.

1 points

QUESTION 52

1. Mr. Ruby is a 33-year-old single father who is requesting pharmacological intervention to treat his fibromyalgia. The PMHNP sees in the medical chart that he has a recent diagnosis of arrhythmia and a BMI of 29. During his assessment, the PMHNP learns that Mr. Ruby works 40-50 hours a week as a contractor and “manages his stress” by smoking 3-4 cigarettes a day and having 8-10 drinks of alcohol each week. Why would duloxetine be contraindicated for Mr. Ruby?

A.

He has fibromyalgia.

B.

He has arrhythmia.

C.

He uses alcohol.

D.

He is overweight.

1 points

QUESTION 53

1. A patient is prescribed sertraline to treat panic disorder. Knowing that sertraline can initially cause anxiety or insomnia, what should the PMHNP do?

A.

Prescribe long-acting benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, then increase the dose.

B.

Prescribe short-acting benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, then discontinue.

C.

Prescribe long-acting benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, then discontinue.

D.

Prescribe short-acting benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, then increase the dose.

1 points

QUESTION 54

1. A patient is prescribed 50 mg of desvenlafaxine to take every other day for major depressive disorder. What does the PMHNP understand about this patient?

A.

The patient has hepatic impairment.

B.

The patient has moderate renal impairment.

C.

The patient has severe renal impairment.

D.

The patient has cardiac impairment.

1 points

QUESTION 55

1. The PMHNP understands that which mechanism contributes to a worse tolerability profile for patients taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)?

A.

Histamine H1 receptor blockade can cause insomnia.

B.

Muscarinic M1 receptor blockade causes blurred vision.

C.

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptor blockade causes weight gain.

D.

Muscarinic M3 receptor blockade causes sedation.

1 points

QUESTION 56

1. A patient who was prescribed an MAO inhibitor is learning about dietary modifications. Which statement made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper teaching of the food-drug interactions for MAO inhibitors?

A.

“You must avoid soy products, such as tofu.”

B.

“You should not consume processed meats.”

C.

“You may consume fermented foods, like sauerkraut.”

D.

“You may continue to drink beers on tap.”

1 points

QUESTION 57

1. A patient who is prescribed MAO inhibitors asks about whether he can continue taking pseudoephedrine to relieve his congestion. Which response by the PMHNP indicates proper understanding of drug-drug interactions?

A.

“Decongestants are fine to continue taking with MAO inhibitors.”

B.

“Decongestants are okay to take with MAO inhibitors in moderation.”

C.

“Decongestants should be avoided due to risk of serotonin syndrome.”

D.

“Decongestants should be avoided due to risk of hypertensive crisis.”

1 points

QUESTION 58

1. Ms. Skidmore presents for a follow-up appointment after being prescribed phenelzine (Nardil), and reports “I take my 45 mg pill, three times a day, just like I’m supposed to.” What does the PMHNP understand about this patient?

A.

Ms. Skidmore is taking the correct dose of phenelzine (Nardil).

B.

Ms. Skidmore is not taking enough of the phenelzine (Nardil); she should be taking three times that amount.

C.

Ms. Skidmore is taking too much of the phenelzine (Nardil); she should be taking the 45 mg in three doses.

D.

Ms. Skidmore is taking too much of the phenelzine (Nardil); she is supposed to take 45 mg every 24 hours.

1 points

QUESTION 59

1. The PMHNP is caring for several patients who present with various symptoms and health issues. For which patient does the PMHNP prescribe pregabalin (Lyrica)?

A.

Patient with PTSD

B.

Patient with partial seizures

C.

Patient with galactose intolerance

D.

Patient with Lapp lactase deficiency

1 points

QUESTION 60

1. Mr. Gutier is 72 years old with anxiety and depressive symptoms. His PMHNP is prescribing lorazepam (Ativan). What does the PMHNP understand regarding this prescription?

A.

The PMHNP will prescribe less than 2-6 mg for Mr. Gutier to take daily.

B.

The PMHNP will require Mr. Gutier to take 2-4 doses of lorazepam (Ativan) per day.

C.

The PMHNP will prescribe more than 2-6 mg for Mr. Gutier to take daily.

D.

The PMHNP will have Mr. Gutier take 6 mg of lorazepam (Ativan) as a PRN.

1 points

QUESTION 61

1. A patient is being prescribed a sedating antidepressant, but is concerned about weight gain. Which medication is most likely to be prescribed to addresses the patient’s concerns?

A.

mirtazapine (Remeron)

B.

doxepin (Silenor)

C.

alprazolam (Xanax)

D.

trazadone (Oleptro)

1 points

QUESTION 62

1. A patient who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder without mania, asks the PMHNP why he is being prescribed a mood stabilizer. What is the appropriate response?

A.

Mood stabilizers are only prescribed to treat manic phases of bipolar depression

B.

Mood stabilizers can consistently treat both mania and bipolar depression

C.

Mood stabilizers can target mania and mania relapse and also reduce symptoms of bipolar depression and relapse of bipolar depression symptoms but no drug has been proven to target all four therapeutic actions

D.

Certain mood stabilizers, such as lithium, are able to consistently target mania and bipolar depression

1 points

QUESTION 63

1. The PMHNP is assessing a patient in the emergency room. The patient shares that he has been on lithium (Lithobid) for many years. What blood tests does the PMHMP order?

A.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

B.

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

C.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

D.

Platelet Count

1 points

QUESTION 64

1. A 39-year old female patient presently on lithium would like to try a new medication to treat her bipolar disorder. She has had concerns about side effects from lithium and wants to learn more about Lamotrigine (Lamictal) as a treatment option. The PMHNP conveys some of the unique aspects of this agent, including which of the following? I don’t think I had this question

A.

There is some indication lamotrigine can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease

B.

Lamotrigine may cause rashes, including the life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome

C.

It was one of the first anticonvulsants approved by the FDA to treat bipolar depression

D.

There is a risk for amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian disease in women of childbearing age

1 points

QUESTION 65

1. A nursing student is seeking clarification on the use of anticonvulsants to treat depression and is unclear about most effective outcomes. Which of the following agents does the PMHNP convey as having uncertain outcomes?

A.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

B.

Gabapentin (Neurontin)

C.

Valporoic Acid (Depakene)

D.

All of the above

1 points

QUESTION 66

1. A 46-year old male patient mentions several alternative treatments to Carbamazepine (Tegretol) as a way to manage symptoms of his bipolar depression. Which of the following does the PMHNP indicate would not be an agent to treat bipolar depression?

A.

Omega-3-fatty-acids

B.

Soybean lecithin

C.

Inositol

D.

L-methylfolate

1 points

QUESTION 67

1. The PMHNP is meeting with a new mother who would like to begin taking medication again to treat her bipolar depression; she is breastfeeding her 2-month old daughter. The PMHNP recognizes that which of the following medications is contraindicated for this patient?

A.

Valporic Acid (Depakene)

B.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

C.

Lithium (Lithobid)

D.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal)

1 points

QUESTION 68

1. The PMHNP assesses a 10-year old male child in the ER and suspects mania. Which of the following symptoms and recommendations for follow-up evaluation are appropriate?

A.

Irritability, euphoria, anger; the child should be evaluated further for conduct disorder.

B.

Irritability, violent outbursts, hyperactivity; the child should also be evaluated further for ADHD

C.

Irritability, lethargy, anger; the child should be evaluated further for ADHD.

D.

Irritability, acute mania, hyperactivity; the child should be evaluated further for conduct disorder.

1 points

QUESTION 69

1. A patient was diagnosed with GAD 4 weeks ago and was placed on Clonazepam (klonopin) twice a day and citalopram (citalopram (celexa)) once daily. When he asks the PMHNP why it is necessary to wean him off of the Clonazepam (klonopin) the best response is:

A.

Clonazepam (klonopin) may interfere with citalopram (celexa)s targeted areas in the brain

B.

Clonazepam (klonopin) is not recommended for long term use due to possible sedation

C.

Clonazepam (klonopin) was used as an aid to treat your condition while you were adjusting to citalopram (celexa)

D.

Clonazepam (klonopin) and citalopram (celexa) target the same area in the brain and after long-term use they will begin to compete making one more or less effective than the other

1 points

QUESTION 70

1. During assessment a patient states “Why are you asking me about my heart, I am here for my head”, the PMHNP’s best response is:

A.

“Some medications can cause heart issues so it is necessary to rule those out before you begin medication.”

B.

“This is a part of our routine admission and it is important that you give me truthful answers.”

C.

“Chronic conditions such as Lupus can cause an area in your brain to malfunction, specifically your hippocampus.”

D.

“Anxiety can cause cortisol levels to increase and when this happens frequently it puts you at risk for comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes.”

1 points

QUESTION 71

1. The PMHNP understands that the potential of alcohol abuse in the anxious patient is higher for the following reason: A.

Alcohol is legal and is a common way that most people deal with their problems.

B.

Alcohol works similar to benzodiazepines

C.

Up to 30% of people with anxiety use alcohol to self-medicate

D.

Alcohol increases serotonin at the synapse and the patient may temporarily feel happy

1 points

QUESTION 72

1. After ordering flumazenil (Rumazicon) the PMHNP cautions the staff to monitor for which possible effect?

a.

Respiratory depression

b.

Sedation and restlessness

c.

Sweating and nausea (This question was marked wrong but I think the answers are different too)

d.

Bradycardia and tachypnea

1 points

QUESTION 73

1. A patient is prescribed escitalopram (Lexapro) for his anxiety. When he asks why he was given an antidepressant the PMHNP’s best response is:

A.

“SSRIs are used to treat anxiety because serotonin has been proven to help with feelings of fear and worry.”

B.

“Even though you were diagnosed with anxiety there is a very high chance that you also have depression due to the similarities of both diseases.”

C.

“Antidepressants are prescribed prophylactically to prevent symptoms of depression.”

D.

“Escitalopram (Lexapro) is very effective with treating the panic attacks that can occur with anxiety.”

1 points

QUESTION 74 ?

1. The PMHNP evaluates the patient for “fear conditioning” when he asks:

A.

Have you ever experienced any type of trauma?

B.

What do you do when you feel fear?

C.

Does your mother or father have a history of fear and/or worrying?

D.

What makes your fear better?

1 points

QUESTION 75

1. A patient diagnosed with PTSD is prescribed propranolol (Inderal) and the PMHNP understands that he was prescribed this medication for what purpose:

A.

He has uncontrolled high blood pressure and this must be treated before focusing on his PTSD.

B.

Beta blockers are linked to reconsolidation.

C.

This medication will allow the patient to sleep throughout the night.

D.

This medication is linked to the increase of serotonin in the brain.

See the link for Final Exam Only

https://www.homeworkmarket.com/questions/nurs6630-final-exam-2018-walden-university

See the link for Midterm Exam Only

QUESTION 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).
A.

“You have to take your medication to become stable.”

BUY NURS 6630 EXAM PAPER HERE

1 points

QUESTION 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

The neurotransmitter serotonin is directly linked to depression. Following this discovery, the antidepressant Prozac was developed.

1 points

QUESTION 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?
A.

Transcription factor must bind to the regulatory region within the cell’s nucleus.

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?
A.

Genes impact neuron functioning directly.

1 points

QUESTION 6

Though medications have the ability to target neurotransmitters in the synapse, it is not always necessary. The PMHNP understands that this is because:
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 7

Why is the cytochrome P450 enzyme system of significance to the PMHNP?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

1 points

QUESTION 8

It is important for the PMHNP to recognize differences in pharmacokinetics to safely prescribe and monitor medications. Which of the following statements does the competent PMHNP identify as true?

1 points

QUESTION 9

As it relates to G-protein linked receptors, what does the PMHNP understand about medications that are used in practice?
NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

D.

Medications used in practice may act as inverse agonists if the dosage is too high.

1 points

QUESTION 10

The PMHNP is considering prescribing a 49-year-old male clozapine (Clozaril) to treat his schizophrenia and suicidal ideations. The PMHNP is aware that which factor may impact the dose needed to effectively treat his condition:
The patient has chronic kidney disease, stage 2.

D.

Question 20

A patient recovering from shingles presents with tenderness and sensitivity to the upper back. He states it is bothersome to put a shirt on most days. This patient has end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is scheduled to have hemodialysis tomorrow but states that he does not know how he can lie in a recliner for 3 hours feeling this uncomfortable. What will be the PMHNP’s priority?

a) order herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody testing

d) Prescribe hydromorphone (dilaudid) 2mg

Question 21

The PMHNP prescribed a patient lamotrigine (Lamictal), 25 mg by mouth daily, for nerve pain 6 months ago. The patient suddenly presents to the office with the complaint that the medication is no longer working and complains of increased pain. What action will the PMHNP most likely take?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) Order gabapentin, 100mg TID because lamotrigine is no longer working for this patient

d) Order a CBC to assess for an infection

Question 22

An elderly woman with a hx of alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction had a fall at home 3 months ago that resulted in her receiving an open reduction internal fixation. While assessing this patient, the pmhnp is made aware that the patient continues to experience mild to moderate pain. What is the pmhnp most likely to do?

a) order an X-ray because it is possible that she dislocated her hip

b) order ibuprofen because she mayneed long term treatment and chronic pain is not uncommon

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 23

The PMHNP is assessing a 49-year-old male with a history of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcoholism with malnutrition, diabetes mellitus type 2, and hypertension. His physical assessment is unremarkable with the exception of peripheral edema bilaterally to his lower extremities and a chief complaint of pain with numbness and tingling to each leg 5/10. The PMHNP starts this patient on a low dose of doxepin (Sinequan). What is the next action that must be taken by the PMHNP?

a) Orders liver function tests

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) Order BUN/Creatinine test

Question 24

The PMHNP is evaluating a 30-year-old female patient who states that she notices pain and a drastic change in mood before the start of her menstrual cycle. The patient states that she has tried diet and lifestyle changes but nothing has worked. What will the PMHNP most likely do?

a) Prescribe estrin FE 24 birth control

b) Prescribe Ibuprofen 800mg every 8 hours as needed for pain

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 25

A patient with chronic back pain has been prescribed a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). How does the PMHNP describe the action of SNRIs on the inhibition of pain to the patient?

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

c) “the SNRI can reduce brain atrophy by slowing the gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex”

d) “the SNRI can increase neurotransmission to descending neurons”

Question 26

A patient with fibromyalgia and major depression needs to be treated for symptoms of pain. Which is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe for this patient?

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Duloxetine (Cymbalta)

c) Clozapine (Clozaril)

d) Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Question 27

The PMHNP prescribes gabapentin (Neurontin) for a patient’s chronic pain. How does the PMHNP anticipate the drug to work?

a) It will bind to the alpha-2-delta ligand subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels

b) It will induce synaptic changes, including sprouting

c) It will act on the presynaptic neuron to trigger sodium influx

d) It will Inhibit activity of dorsal horn neurons to suppress body input from reaching the brain

Question 28

Mrs. Rosen is a 49-year-old patient who is experiencing fibro-fog. What does the PMHNP prescribe for Mrs. Rosen to improve this condition?

a) Venlafaxine (Effexor)

b) Armodafinil (Nuvigil)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 29

The PMHNP is caring for a patient with fibromyalgia. Which second-line treatment does the PMHNP select that may be effective for managing this patient’s pain?

a) Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

b) Viloxazine (Vivalan)

Question 30

The PMHNP is attempting to treat a patient’s chronic pain by having the agent bind the open channel conformation of VSCCs to block those channels with a “use-dependent” form of inhibition. Which agent will the PMHNP most likely select?

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

d) Atomoxetine (Strattera)

Question 31

A patient with irritable bowel syndrome reports chronic stomach pain. The PMHNP wants to prescribe the patient an agent that will cause irrelevant nociceptive inputs from the pain to be ignored and no longer perceived as painful. Which drug will the PMHNP prescribe?

a) Pregabalin (Lyrica)

b) Gabapentin (Neurontin)

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 32

The PMHNP wants to use a symptom-based approach to treating a patient with fibromyalgia. How does the PMHNP go about treating this patient?

a) Prescribing the patient an agent that ignores the painful symptoms by initiating a reaction known as “fibro-fog”

b) Targeting the patient’s symptoms with anticonvulsants that inhibits gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

c) Mzatching the patient’s symptoms with the malfunctioning brain circuits and neurotransimitters that might mediate those symptoms

d) None of the above

Question 33

The PMHNP is working with the student to care for a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. The student asks the PMHNP why SSRIs are not consistently useful in treating this particular patient’s pain. What is the best response by the PMHNP?

c) “SSRIs only increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels”

d) “SSRIs do not increase serotonin or norepinephrine levels”

Question 34

A patient with gambling disorder and no other psychiatric comorbidities is being treated with pharmacological agents. Which drug is the PMHNP most likely to prescribe?

a) Antipsychotics

b) Lithium

Question 35

Kevin is an adolescent who has been diagnosed with kleptomania. His parents are interested in seeking pharmacological treatment. What does the PMHNP tell the parents regarding his treatment options?

a) “Naltrexone may be an appropriate option to discuss”

b) “there are many medicine options that treat Kleptomania”

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 36

Which statement best describes a pharmacological approach to treating patients for impulsive aggression?

a) Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers can eradicate limbic irritability

b) Atypical antipsychotics can increase subcortical dopaminergic stimulation

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 37

A patient with hypersexual disorder is being assessed for possible pharmacologic treatment. Why does the PMHNP prescribe an antiandrogen for this patient?

a) It will prevent feelings of euphoria

b) It will amplify impulse control

c) It will block testosterone

d) It will redirect the patient to think about other things

Question 38

Mrs. Kenner is concerned that her teenage daughter spends too much time on the Internet. She inquires about possible treatments for her daughter’s addiction. Which response by the PMHNP demonstrates understanding of pharmacologic approaches for compulsive disorders?

a) “Compulsive internet use can be treated similarly to how we treat people with substance use disorders”

b) “internet addiction is treated with drugs that help block the tension/arousal state your daughter experiences”

Question 39

Mr. Peterson is meeting with the PMHNP to discuss healthier dietary habits. With a BMI of 33, Mr. Peterson is obese and needs to modify his food intake. “Sometimes I think I’m addicted to food the way some people are addicted to drugs”, he says. Which statement best describes the neurobiological parallels between food and drug addiction?

a) There is decreased activation of the prefrontal cortex

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

d) There are amplified reward circuits that activate upon consumption

Question 40

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who reports excessive arousal at nighttime. What could the PMHNP use for a time-limited duration to shift the patient’s brain from a hyperactive state to a sleep state?

a) Histamine 2 receptor antagonist

b) Benzodiazepines

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

Question 41

The PMHNP is caring for a patient who experiences too much overstimulation and anxiety during daytime hours. The patient agrees to a pharmacological treatment but states, “I don’t want to feel sedated or drowsy from the medicine.” Which decision made by the PMHNP demonstrates proper knowledge of this patient’s symptoms and appropriate treatment options?

a) Avoiding prescribing the patient a drug that blocks H1 receptors

b) Prescribing the patient a drug that acts on H2 receptors

c) Stopping the patient from taking medicine that unblocks H1 receptors

d) None of the above

NURS 6630 Midterm and Final Exam Questions and Answers

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As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

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NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Accessible player

Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain.

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Week 3 discussion

Discussion: The Impact of Ethnicity on Antidepressant Therapy

Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders you will see in clinical practice. Treatment for this disorder, however, can vary greatly depending on client factors, such as ethnicity and culture. As a psychiatric mental health professional, you must understand the influence of these factors to select appropriate psychopharmacologic interventions. For this Discussion, consider how you might assess and treat the individuals in the case studies based on the provided client factors, including ethnicity and culture.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

amitriptylinE

bupropion

citalopram

clomipramine

desipramine

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #1: The man whose antidepressants stopped working

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #7: The case of physician do not heal thyself

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #29: The depressed man who thought he was out of options

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 7 discussion

Discussion: Sleep/Wake Disorders

It is not uncommon to experience a night or two of disrupted sleep when there is something major going on in your life. However, sleep/wake disorders are much more than an occasional night of disrupted sleep. A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that between 50 and 70 million American have problems with sleep/wake disorders (CDC, 2015). Although the vast majority of Americans will visit their primary care provider for treatment of these disorders, many providers will refer patients for further evaluation. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat the individuals based on the provided client factors.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 11, “Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness and Their Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

alprazolam

amitriptyline

amoxapine

clomipramine

Case 1: Volume 2, Case #16: The woman who liked late-night TV

Case 2: Volume 2, Case #11: The figment of a man who looked upon the lady

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #5: The sleepy woman with anxiety

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 9 discussion

Discussion: Presentations of ADHD

Although ADHD is often associated with children, this disorder is diagnosed in clients across the lifespan. While many individuals are properly diagnosed and treated during childhood, some individuals who have ADHD only present with subsyndromal evidence of the disorder. These individuals are often undiagnosed until they reach adulthood and struggle to cope with competing demands of running a household, caring for children, and maintaining employment. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat individuals presenting with ADHD.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Clancy, C.M., Change, S., Slutsky, J., & Fox, S. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effectiveness of treatment in at-risk preschoolers; long-term effectiveness in all ages; and variability in prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Table B. KQ2: Long-term(>1 year) effectiveness of interventions for ADHD in people 6 years and older.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 12, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Mignon, L. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the ADHD tab.

Chapter 4, “ADHD Treatments”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

For ADHD

armodafinil

amphetamine (d)

amphetamine (d,l)

atomoxetine

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #13: The 8-year-old girl who was naughty

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Case 3: Volume 2, Case #21: Hindsight is always 20/20, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 10 discussion

Discussion: Influencing Social Change

Individuals with psychiatric mental health disorders are frequently stigmatized not only by society as a whole, but also by their friends, family, and sometimes healthcare providers. In your role, however, you have the opportunity to become a social change agent for these individuals. For this Discussion, consider how you might make a positive impact for your clients and advocate for social change within your own community.

Learning Objectives

Students will:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Apply strategies to become a social change agent for psychiatric mental health

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Angermeyer, M. C., Matschinger, H., & Schomerus, G. (2013). Attitudes towards psychiatric treatment and people with mental illness: Changes over two decades. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(2), 146–151. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/203/2/146.full

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Dingfelder, S. F. (2009). Stigma: Alive and well. American Psychological Association, 40(6), 56. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/06/stigma.aspx

Jenkins, J. H. (2012). The anthropology of psychopharmacology: Commentary on contributions to the analysis of pharmaceutical self and imaginary. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 36(1), 78–79. doi:10.1007/s11013-012-9248-0

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Price, L. H. (2010). Violence in America: Is psychopharmacology the answer? Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, 21(5), 5. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1556-7532

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Optional Resources

Bennett, T. (2015). Changing the way society understands mental health. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/April-2015/Changing-The-Way-Society-Understands-Mental-Health

Mechanic, D. (2007). Mental health services then and now. Health Affairs, 26(6), 1548–1550. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170605094514/http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/6/1548.full

Rothman, D. J. (1994). Shiny, happy people: The problem with “cosmetic psychopharmacology.” New Republic, 210(7), 34–38.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Reflect on how you might influence social change for psychiatric mental health.

Week 2 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders

When pediatric clients present with mood disorders, the process of assessing, diagnosing, and treating them can be quite complex. Children not only present with different signs and symptoms than adult clients with the same disorders, but they also metabolize medications much differently. As a result, psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners must exercise caution when prescribing psychotropic medications to these clients. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting with mood disorders.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This Assignment is the first of 10 assignments that are based on interactive client case studies. For these assignments, you will be required to make decisions about how to assess and treat clients. Each of your decisions will have a consequence. Some consequences will be insignificant, and others may be life altering. You are not expected to make the “right” decision every time; in fact, some scenarios may not have a “right” decision. You are, however, expected to learn from each decision you make and demonstrate the ability to weigh risks versus benefits to prescribe appropriate treatments for clients.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline

bupropion

citalopram

clomipramine

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment
Magellan Health, Inc. (2013). Appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents: A clinical monograph. Retrieved from http://www.magellanhealth.com/media/445492/magellan-psychotropicdrugs-0203141.pdf

Rao, U. (2013). Biomarkers in pediatric depression. Depression & Anxiety, 30(9), 787–791. doi:10.1002/da.22171

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Vitiello, B. (2012). Principles in using psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. In J. M. Rey (Ed.), IACAPAP e-Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. Retrieved from http://iacapap.org/wp-content/uploads/A.7-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-072012.pdf

Poznanski, E., & Mokros, H. (1996). Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016e). Case study: An African American child suffering from depression [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

El Marroun, H., White, T., Verhulst, F., & Tiemeier, H. (2014). Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: A systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(10), 973–992. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0558-3

Gordon, M. S., & Melvin, G. A. (2014). Do antidepressants make children and adolescents suicidal? Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 50(11), 847–854. doi:10.1111/jpc.12655

Seedat, S. (2014)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . Controversies in the use of antidepressants in children and adolescents: A decade since the storm and where do we stand now? Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 26(2), iii–v. doi:10.2989/17280583.2014.938497

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat pediatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An African American Child Suffering From Depression. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 3 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Adult and Geriatric Clients With Mood Disorders

Advances in genetics and epigenetics have changed the traditional understanding of mood disorders, resulting in new evidence-based practices. In your role as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to continually educate yourself on new findings and best practices in the field. For this Assignment, you consider best practices for assessing and treating adult and geriatric clients presenting with mood disorders.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline

bupropion

citalopram

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marie_Asberg/publication/22697065_A_New_Depression_Scale_Designed_to_be_Sensitive_to_Change/links/09e41513f85c708fee000000.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016g). Case study: An elderly Hispanic man with major depressive disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment :

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 4 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients with With Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a unique disorder that causes shifts in mood and energy, which results in depression and mania for clients. Proper diagnosis of this disorder is often a challenge for two reasons: 1) clients often present as depressive or manic, but may have both; and 2) many symptoms of bipolar disorder are similar to other disorders. Misdiagnosis is common, making it essential for you to have a deep understanding of the disorder’s pathophysiology. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with bipolar disorder.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Chapter 8, “Mood Stabilizers”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009b). Stahl’s illustrated mood stabilizers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Mood Stabilizers tab.

Chapter 4, “Lithium and Various Anticonvulsants as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Chapter 5, “Atypical Antipsychotics as Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder”

Vitiello, B. (2013). How effective are the current treatments for children diagnosed with manic/mixed bipolar disorder? CNS Drugs, 27(5), 331-333. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0060-3

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Chen, R., Wang, H., Shi, J., Shen, K., & Hu, P. (2015). Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(7), 835-841. doi:10.1007/s00228-015-1855-6

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016f). Case study: An Asian American woman with bipolar disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Mostafavi, A., Solhi, M., Mohammadi, M., Hamedi, M., Keshavarzi, M., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2014). Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Medica Iranica, 52(10), 734-739.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Retrieved from http://acta.tums.ac.ir/index.php/acta

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring bipolar therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 5 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Anxiety Disorders

Common symptoms of anxiety disorders include chest pains, shortness of breath, and other physical symptoms that may be mistaken for a heart attack or other physical ailment. These manifestations often prompt clients to seek care from their primary care providers or emergency departments. Once it is determined that there is no organic basis for these symptoms, clients are typically referred to a psychiatric mental health practitioner for anxiolytic therapy. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with anxiety disorders.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 9, “Anxiety Disorder and Anxiolytics”

Stahl, S. M., & Grady, M. (2010). Stahl’s illustrated anxiety, stress, and PTSD. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapters, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD tab.

Chapter 4, “First-Line Medications for PTSD”

Chapter 5, “Second-Line, Adjunct, and Investigational Medications for PTSD”

Strawn, J. R., Wehry, A. M., DelBello, M. P., Rynn, M. A., & Strakowski, S. (2012). Establishing the neurobiologic basis of treatment in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 29(4), 328–-339. doi:10.1002/da.21913

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Hamilton, M. (1959). Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Psyctests, doi:10.1037/t02824-0

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016b). Case study: A middle-aged Caucasian man with anxiety [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Lupi, M., Martinotti, G., Acciavatti, T., Pettorruso, M., Brunetti, M., Santacroce, R., & … Di Giannantonio, M. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in gambling disorder: A qualitative review. Biomed Research International, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/537306

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Middle-Aged Caucasian Man With Anxiety. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 6 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brain’s normal processes, which interferes with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, clients may struggle to function in daily life. However, clients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with psychosis and schizophrenia.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 4, “Psychosis and Schizophrenia”

Chapter 5, “Antipsychotic Agents”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment . The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review the following medications:

amisulpride

aripiprazole

asenapine

chlorpromazine

clozapine

flupenthixol

fluphenazine

haloperidol

iloperidone

loxapine

lurasidone

olanzapine

paliperidone

perphenazine

quetiapine

risperidone

sulpiride

thioridazine

thiothixene

trifluoperazine

ziprasidone

Naber, D., & Lambert, M. (2009). The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: Results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs, 23(8), 649-659. doi:10.2165/00023210-200923080-00002

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261-276.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Clozapine REMS. (2015). Clozapine REMS: The single shared system for clozapine. Retrieved from https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf

Walden University. (2016). ASC success strategies: Studying for and taking a test. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASCsuccess/ASCtesting

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016j). Case study: Pakistani woman with delusional thought processes [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Chakos, M., Patel, J. K., Rosenheck, R., Glick, I. D., Hammer, M. B., Tapp, A., & … Miller, D. (2011). Concomitant psychotropic medication use during treatment of schizophrenia patients: Longitudinal results from the CATIE study. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 5(3), 124-134. doi:10.3371/CSRP.5.3.2

Fangfang, S., Stock, E. M., Copeland, L. A., Zeber, J. E., Ahmedani, B. K., & Morissette, S. B. (2014). Polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: Trends in multiple health care systems. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 71(9), 728-738. doi:10.2146/ajhp130471NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Lin, L. A., Rosenheck, R., Sugar, C., & Zbrozek, A. (2015). Comparing antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia: A health state approach. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 86(1), 107-121. doi:10.1007/s11126-014-9326-2

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring anxiolytic therapy.

Week 7 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Pain

Pain can greatly influence an individual’s quality of life, as uncontrolled pain negatively impacts mood, concentration, and the overall physical and mental well-being of clients. Although pain can often be controlled with medications, the process of assessing and treating clients can be challenging because pain is such a subjective experience. Only the person experiencing the pain truly knows the intensity of the pain and whether there is a need for medication therapies. Sometimes, beliefs about pain and treatments for pain can have an adverse effect on the provider-client relationship. For this Assignment, as you examine the interactive case study consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with pain.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 10, “Chronic Pain and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Ball, S. (2009a). Stahl’s illustrated chronic pain and fibromyalgia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Chronic Pain and Fibromyalgia tab.

Chapter 5, “Pain Drugs”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

amitriptyline

amoxapine

carbamazepine

clomipramine

clonidine (adjunct)NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

desipramine

dothiepin

doxepin

duloxetine

gabapentin

imipramine

lamotrigine

levetiracetam

lofepramine

maprotiline

memantine

milnacipran

nortriptyline

pregabalin

tiagabine

topiramate

trimipramine

valproate (divalproex)

zonisamide

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2016). Pain: Hope through research. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/detail_chronic_pain.htm#3084_2

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016a). Case study: A Caucasian man with hip pain [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for pain and sleep/wake disorders.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Decision #3 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 8 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction

Impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction are challenging disorders for clients across the lifespan. These disorders often manifest as negative behaviors, resulting in adverse outcomes for clients. In your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you have the opportunity to help clients address underlying causes of the disorders and overcome these behaviors. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction.

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 14, “Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction”

Stahl, S. M., & Grady, M. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated substance use and impulsive disorder New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders tab.

Chapter 10, “Disorders of Impulsivity and Compulsivity”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

For obsessive-compulsive disorder

Citalopram

clomipramine

escitalopram

fluoxetine

fluvoxamine

paroxetine

sertraline

venlafaxineNURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

vilazodone

For alcohol withdrawal

chlordiazepoxide

clonidine

clorazepate

diazepam

lorazepam

oxazepam

For bulimia nervosa and binge eating

fluoxetine

topiramate

zonisamide

For alcohol abstinence

acamprosate

disulfiram

For alcohol dependence

nalmefene

naltrexone

For opioid dependence

buprenorphine

naltrexone

For nicotine addiction

bupropion

varenicline

Book Excerpt: S.ubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 32. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64350/

Chapter 1, “Substance Use Among Adolescents”

Chapter 2, “Tailoring Treatment to the Adolescent’s Problem”

Chapter 7, “Youths with Distinctive Treatment Needs”

University of Michigan Health System. (2016). Childhood trauma linked to worse impulse control in adulthood, study finds. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160120201324.htm

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Grant, J. E., Odlaug, B. L., & Schreiber, L. N. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(2), 375–381. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04457.x

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Loreck, D., Brandt, N. J., & DiPaula, B. (2016). Managing opioid abuse in older adults: Clinical considerations and challenges. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(4), 10–15. doi:10.3928/00989134-20160314-04

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Salmon, J. M., & Forester, B. (2012). Substance abuse and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in older adults: A clinical case and review of the relevant literature. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 8(1), 74–84. doi:10.1080/15504263.2012.648439

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Sanches, M., Scott-Gurnell, K., Patel, A., Caetano, S. C., Zunta-Soares, G. B., Hatch, J. P., & … Soares, J. C. (2014). Impulsivity in children and adolescents with mood disorders and unaffected offspring of bipolar parents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(6), 1337–1341. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.018

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016c). Case study: A Puerto Rican woman with comorbid addiction [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adolescent clients requiring therapy for impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Puerto Rican Woman With Comorbid Addiction. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Week 9 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With ADHD

Not only do children and adults have different presentations for ADHD, but males and females may also have vastly different clinical presentations. They may also respond to medication therapies differently. For example, some ADHD medications may cause children to experience stomach pain, while others can be highly addictive for adults. In your role, as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must perform careful assessments and weigh the risks and benefits of medication therapies for clients across the lifespan. For this Assignment, you consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with ADHD. NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: Review all materials from the Discussion.

Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. D. A., & Epstein, J. N. (1998). Revision and restandardization of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): Factors, structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 279-291.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (2016d). Case study: A young Caucasian girl with ADHD [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: A Young Caucasian Girl With ADHD You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2 NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Week 10 assignment

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Dementia

The Alzheimer’s Association defines dementia as “a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). This term encompasses dozens of cognitive disorders of impaired memory formation, recall, and communication. The care and treatment of clients with dementia is dependent on multiple factors, including the stage of dementia, comorbidities, family support, and even the care setting. In your role, as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must be prepared to not only treat clients with these various cognitive disorders, but also the multiple behavioral issues that often accompany them. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with dementia.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Reference: Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). What is dementia? Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

To access the following chapter, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 13, “Dementia and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

donepezil

galantamine

memantine

rivastigmine

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016h). Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Week 6 midterm

Question 1

A noncompliant patient states, “Why do you want me to put this poison in my body?” Identify the best response made by the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP).NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Question 2

Which statement about neurotransmitters and medications is true?

Question 3

When an unstable patient asks why it is necessary to add medications to his current regimen, the PMHNP’s best response would be:

Question 4

During gene expression, what must occur prior to a gene being expressed?

Question 5

While genes have potential to modify behavior, behavior can also modify genes. How do genes impact this process?

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

From negative changes in mood to problems concentrating, pain and sleep/wake disorders can have a tremendous impact on clients’ lives. When clients suffer from these disorders, they often seek medical care with the intent of receiving medications to manage symptoms. However, many of the medications used to treat pain and sleep/wake disorders may be addictive, making thorough client assessments and close follow-up care essential. To prescribe appropriate therapies with client safety in mind, you must understand not only the pathophysiology of these disorders, but also the pharmacologic agents used to treat them.

This week, as you study therapies for individuals with pain and sleep/wake disorders, you examine the assessment and treatment of clients with these disorders. You also explore ethical and legal implications of these therapies.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Photo Credit: [riskms]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Discussion: Sleep/Wake Disorders

It is not uncommon to experience a night or two of disrupted sleep when there is something major going on in your life. However, sleep/wake disorders are much more than an occasional night of disrupted sleep. A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that between 50 and 70 million American have problems with sleep/wake disorders (CDC, 2015). Although the vast majority of Americans will visit their primary care provider for treatment of these disorders, many providers will refer patients for further evaluation. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat the individuals based on the provided client factors.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized therapy plans for clients with sleep/wake disorders

Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in clients requiring therapy for sleep/wake disorders

Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans for clients presenting for sleep/wake therapy

Apply knowledge of providing care to adult and geriatric clients presenting for sleep/wake disorders

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 11, “Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness and Their Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

alprazolam

amitriptyline

amoxapine

clomipramine

clonazepam

desipramine

diazepam

doxepin

flunitrazepam

flurazepam

hydroxyzine

imipramine

lorazepam

nortriptyline

ramelteon

temazepam

trazodone

triazolam

trimipramine

zaleplon

zolpidem

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Davidson, J. (2016). Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder: Going beyond the guidelines. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2(6), e16-e18. doi:10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.003707. Retrieved from http://bjpo.rcpsych.org/content/2/6/e16

To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Case 1: Volume 2, Case #16: The woman who liked late-night TV

Case 2: Volume 2, Case #11: The figment of a man who looked upon the lady

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #5: The sleepy woman with anxiety

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the posttest for the case study.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

By Day 3

Post a response to the following:

Provide the case number in the subject line of the Discussion.

List three questions you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office. Provide a rationale for why you might ask these questions.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Identify people in the patient’s life you would need to speak to or get feedback from to further assess the patient’s situation. Include specific questions you might ask these people and why.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Explain what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate for the patient and how the results would be used.

List three differential diagnoses for the patient. Identify the one that you think is most likely and explain why.

List two pharmacologic agents and their dosing that would be appropriate for the patient’s sleep/wake therapy based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. From a mechanism of action perspective, provide a rationale for why you might choose one agent over the other.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

If your assigned case includes “check points” (i.e., follow-up data at week 4, 8, 12, etc.), indicate any therapeutic changes that you might make based on the data provided.

Explain “lessons learned” from this case study, including how you might apply this case to your own practice when providing care to patients with similar clinical presentations.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Advances in genetics and epigenetics have changed the traditional understanding of mood disorders, resulting in new evidence-based practices. In your role as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to continually educate yourself on new findings and best practices in the field. For this Assignment, you consider best practices for assessing and treating adult and geriatric clients presenting with mood disorders.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized plans of antidepressant therapy for adult and geriatric clients
Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy
Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans
Analyze ethical and legal implications related to prescribing antidepressant therapy to adult and geriatric clients
Learning Resources
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Chapter 6, “Mood Disorders”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER
Review the following medications:

amitriptyline
bupropion
citalopram
clomipramine
desipramine
desvenlafaxine
doxepin
duloxetine
escitalopram
fluoxetine
fluvoxamine
imipramine
ketamine
mirtazapine
nortriptyline
paroxetine
selegiline
sertraline
trazodone
venlafaxine
vilazodone
vortioxetine
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marie_Asberg/publication/22697065_A_New_Depression_Scale_Designed_to_be_Sensitive_to_Change/links/09e41513f85c708fee000000.pdf

Required Media
Laureate Education. (2016g). Case study: An elderly Hispanic man with major depressive disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

The Assignment
Examine Case Study: An Elderly Hispanic Man With Major Depressive Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Decision #1

Which decision did you select?
Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.
NURS 6630 Week 3 Discussion
Discussion: The Impact of Ethnicity on Antidepressant Therapy
Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders you will see in clinical practice. Treatment for this disorder, however, can vary greatly depending on client factors, such as ethnicity and culture. As a psychiatric mental health professional, you must understand the influence of these factors to select appropriate psychopharmacologic interventions. For this Discussion, consider how you might assess and treat the individuals in the case studies based on the provided client factors, including ethnicity and culture.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER
Review the following medications:

amitriptyline
bupropion
citalopram
clomipramine
desipramine
To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #1: The man whose antidepressants stopped working

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #7: The case of physician do not heal thyself

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #29: The depressed man who thought he was out of options

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Review the posttest for the case study.

SAMPLE APPROACH

NURS 6630 Week 3 Assignment: Assessing and Treating Adult and Geriatric Clients With Mood Disorders
Introduction

Depression in the elderly altogether influences patients, families, and groups. Familiarity with inclining and hastening variables can help recognize patients needing screening with instruments, for example, the Geriatric Depression Scale (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). After analysis, consistent development and dynamic drug administration are essential to augment treatment and reduction.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper Determination of a stimulant solution ought to be founded on the best reaction profile and the most reduced danger of medication collaboration. On the off chance that abatement is not accomplished, then extra medicines, including different medications and psychotherapy, might be considered (Flint & Rifat, 2013). In instances of serious, insane, or recalcitrant depression in the elderly, electroconvulsive treatment is prescribed. This paper considers a case of a 31-year-old Hispanic man with severe depression and the treatment options available. The treatment decisions made are evaluated and the outcomes compared to facilitate greater understanding of geriatric depression therapy.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Decision Point One

Selected Decision

Begin Zoloft 25 mg orally daily

Reason for Selection

Zoloft is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of severe depression in adults. The patient had a score of 51 when the PMHNP administered MADRS, this is an indication of severe depression. Considering the available antidepressants in this case, phenelzine is recommended for use in areas where other drugs have failed (Stahl, 2014b). Effexor XL on the other hand can be used but has many potential side effects considering the patients history and lifestyle. Thus, Zoloft emerges as the best option.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER
Expected Results

The action of Zoloft should be evident within the first two weeks as this is the pharmaceutical expectation from the experiments completed with the drug. By the time the patient comes for checkup after two weeks, he should report ability to sleep at night. The level of concentration should also undergo a boost on administering this drug (Liu, Anderson, Mittmann, Axcell & Shear, 2015). It is also expected that the patient will be motivated to the normal activities and even relate well with people. The patient’s feeling of being an outsider due to the past treatment should start waning off.

Differences between Expected Results and Actual Results

When the patient revisited after four weeks and reported a decrease of 25% in the symptoms. This is in the direction of the expectations. However, another outcome was not anticipated, the patient was experiencing erectile dysfunction (Gaboda, Lucas, Siegel, Kalay & Crystal, 2014). This is a side effect of the drug that was not expected when the treatment plan was made. Zoloft has a number of potential side effects and erectile dysfunction is one of them though not very common. The rest of the outcomes reflected the expected trend even though the rate was a bit lower than anticipated.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

NURS 6630 Week 3 Assignment Decision Point Two

Selected Decision

Add augmenting agent such as Wellbutrin IR 150 mg in morning

Reason for Selection

The client was experiencing a decrease in the depression symptoms because of administering Zoloft but the same drug had led to erectile dysfunction. It is a good idea to maintain Zoloft for reducing depression and combine it with another antidepressant with abilities to abate erectile dysfunction. Wellbutrin is such an antidepressant that can be used to help the patient’s erection function normally while on depression therapy (Flint & Rifat, 2013). In this case, the focus is not to treat the side effect of Zoloft as this is not advisable, but it is to introduce an antidepressant and slowly withdraw Zoloft and thereby correcting erectile dysfunction.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Expected Results

When Wellbutrin is introduced as augmenting agent, the patient should experience much reduced symptoms. This is because both Zoloft and Wellbutrin will be working to reduce depression and thus the combined effect should be bigger (Flint & Rifat, 2013). In addition, the patient should start having normal erection as a result of the working of Wellbutrin. This should even make the patient better and more motivated.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Differences between Expected Results and Actual Results

The patient visited again after four weeks and he stated that the depressive symptoms had even reduced further. He also informed that the erection dysfunction had been abated. These two outcomes were expected as the therapy was being administered. Nevertheless, different other outcomes from the ones anticipated arose (Gaboda, Lucas, Siegel, Kalay & Crystal, 2014). The patient was feeling jittery and nervous. Either of the two drugs could influence this; Zoloft and Wellbutrin as both are known to cause feelings of anxiety in some cases. Sometimes the feeling of jittery is caused by the kind of dosage of the two drugs.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Decision Point Three

Selected Decision

Change Wellbutrin to XL 150 mg orally in AM

Reason for Selection

The patient is experiencing jitteriness as the only problem with the current therapy. The effect of medication is as intended and so it is not proper to change just because of the side effect. Jitteriness may be caused by the immediate release of Wellbutrin. Trying to change the administration of Wellbutrin may be the solution to jitteriness. Administering Wellbutrin in its extended release form can help to reduce depression and remove jitteriness. It is not proper to introduce a new drug to treat the side effects of another before trying to modify the dosage of the original drug.

Expected Results

Administration Wellbutrin in its extended release form is anticipated to treat jitteriness if in fact the problem is the immediate release of Wellbutrin. It is also expected that the patient will continue experiencing an improved rate of depression reduction (Liu, Anderson, Mittmann, Axcell & Shear, 2015). The ceasing of jitteriness should allow the patient to have confidence in the therapy and are motivated to continue using the medication. The concentration ability of the patient should increase tremendously. The patient should also not have problems with sleeping at night.

Differences between Expected Results and Actual Results

The decision seems to be in agreement with the standard way of dealing with side effects of therapy administered to a patient (Laureate Education, 2016g). It was recommended that a drug can be modified in the way it is administered in an attempt to handle the side effects rather than introduce another drug to treat the side effect (Liu, Anderson, Mittmann, Axcell & Shear, 2015). This is because every drug has side effects and so treating one may be just as good as introducing another.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Impact of Ethical Considerations on Treatment Plan

Ant-depression therapy in adults has many complications that accompany any medication plan adopted. It involves taking risks, as there are many side effects of the drugs used in this therapy. Some drugs cause patients to have suicidal tendencies (Flint, 2012). Based on the doctor’s evaluation of the patient, some drugs may not be included in the therapy of certain patients. In this case, some drugs may not be used especially those that induce suicidal tendencies as this patient is not interacting with people and that make is risky.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

Conclusion

Depression in the elderly is a noteworthy, normal, and developing issue that requires treatment. It has genuine ramifications for the patient, family, and group. Recognizable proof took after by a careful evaluation can help manage the determination of a proper upper prescription. There are a few variables to consider when choosing, altering, and changing antidepressants in the elderly. Together, these techniques can help advance the sheltered utilization of antidepressants in the elderly (Flint & Rifat, 2013). Other than medicines, different treatments for wretchedness that may be considered incorporate different types of psychotherapy and neurostimulation, with electroconvulsive treatment as yet being the highest quality level for extreme or crazy discouragement.NURS 6630 Psychopharmacology Assignment Paper

 

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