Process of Neurotransmission Essay
Neurotransmission Process Neurotransmission also known as synaptic transmission refers to a communication process between neurons by the movement of chemicals or electrical signals across a synapse. The action potential has begun in the presynaptic neuron after neurotransmission takes position at a synapse.Process of Neurotransmission Essay The binding process of neurotransmitters can trigger short term changes such as postsynaptic potentials also called membrane potential, or longer term changes depends on the stimulation of signaling cascades. It is essential for nerve impulses to assist in the propagation of signals in which they sent to and from the central nervous system (CNS) through efferent and afferent neurons. These signals coordinate both skeletal and …show more content…
The postsynaptic receptors respond depending on the nature of the neurotransmitter (Leonard, 2003). The neurotransmitter contents are taken back up into the synaptic neuron terminal for repackaged into vesicles (Hart, Ksir, & Ray, 2010). Neurotransmission process involves chemical and electric process. Electrical signaling carries information between two same neurons through gap junctions whereas chemical signaling carries information between neurons. Electrical signaling conducts nerve impulses faster than chemical signaling. Electrical signaling can exists between two dendrites, two axons, or between a dendrites and an axon. When a neuron is stimulated, the electrical impulse also called action potential moves along the neuron’s axon or dendrite (cite). The process of signaling is very rapid. The movement of the action potential downs the axon in the direction of the axon terminals. When the electrical signal reaches the end of the axon terminal, it triggers chemical reactions in the neuron that lead to the release of neurotransmitters. The release of neurotransmitters will then cross the synaptic space and connect to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron. The chemical binding of neurotransmitter and receptor begins changes that may produce an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron (Webster, 2001). Process of Neurotransmission Essay
Neurotransmitters are chemicals made by neurons and used by them to transmit signals to the other neurons or non-neuronal cells (e.g., skeletal muscle; myocardium, pineal glandular cells) that they innervate. The neurotransmitters produce their effects by being released into synapses when their neuron of origin fires (i.e., becomes depolarized) and then attaching to receptors in the membrane of the post-synaptic cells. This causes changes in the fluxes of particular ions across that membrane, making cells more likely to become depolarized, if the neurotransmitter happens to be excitatory, or less likely if it is inhibitory. Neurotransmitters can also produce their effects by modulating the production of other…show more content…
Some dopaminergic (i.e., dopamine-releasing) neurons run from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum; their loss gives rise to the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s Disease (Korczyn 1994); others, involved in the rewarding effects of drugs and natural stimuli, run from the mesencephalon to the nucleunucleus accumbens.Process of Neurotransmission Essay The second neurotransmitter family includes amino acids, compounds that contain both an amino group (NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and which are also the building blocks of peptides and proteins. The amino acids known to serve as neurotransmitters are glycine, glutamic and aspartic acids, all present in all proteins, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), produced only in brain neurons. Glutamic acid and GABA are the most abundant neurotransmitters within the central nervous system, particularly in the cerebral cortex; glutamic acid tends to be excitatory and GABA inhibitory.Process of Neurotransmission Essay Aspartic acid and glycine subserve these functions in the spinal cord (Cooper, Bloom, and Roth 1996). The third neurotransmitter family is composed of peptides, compounds that contain at least two and sometimes as many as 100 amino acids. Peptide neurotransmitters are poorly understood: Evidence that they are, in fact, transmitters tends to be incomplete, and restricted to their location within nerve terminals, and the physiologic effects produced when they are applied to neurons.
Research on neurons communication began after Loewi’s discovery about an chemical causing the heart beat to increase when aroused through excitation or carrying out physically straining tasks such as running, likewise, a chemical causes heart beat to decrease when relaxing. He suggested from his research that chemicals that increase heart rate send excitatory messages on the other hand chemicals that calm down the heart rate send inhibitory messages. Moreover the discovery of electronic microscope helped with the finding of synapses and further developed the knowledge on neurotransmission. This essay will be exploring the different stages of neurotransmission in detail and then go to see the effect toxins have on neurons communication. (Kolb & Whishaw) Process of Neurotransmission Essay
The first stage of neurotransmission involves synthesis and storage of the neurotransmitter. Each transmitter involved has a unique process for synthesis depending on the neuron’s enzyme in the transmitter. Synthesis usually occurs in the presynaptic terminal. An essential process called slow axonal transport takes place. This is when the enzymes involved in synthesising the transmitter is synthesised in the neuronal cell body at the nerve terminal cytoplasm. After, the protein transporters absorb the precursor molecules of synthetic enzyme and place them in the nerve terminal. The enzymes produce a cytoplasmic pool of neurotransmitters, which are delivered to the synaptic vesicles by protein transporters.Process of Neurotransmission Essay