Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514

Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514

NUR-514 Course Objectives

Description:

In this course, the learner will:

  1. Explore various health care system and organizational relationships (e.g., stakeholders, economic, financial, political, ethical issues, organizational structure, and delivery of care, including mission/vision/philosophy and values).
  2. Discuss professional leadership theories and how they shape the nurse leader in such things as collaboration, conflict resolution, decision making, and negotiation.
  3. Discuss change management theories and strategies and the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of practice change on nursing practice decisions.
  4. Analyze the impact of health care policy on health care organizations and cost-effective quality care.
  5. Evaluate strategies for managing human, fiscal, and health care resources in the design of cost-effective, innovative models of care delivery or practice change proposals.
  6. Explore current and emerging patient care, information system, and communication technologies that can deliver and enhance safe, high quality, cost-effective patient care and health outcomes.
  7. Examine the implications of health care informatics and the role of the advanced registered nursing specialties leader on performance measures and standards related to quality.
  8. Discuss the design, implementation, and evaluation of electronic health record systems and clinical decision support systems.
  9. Evaluate legal (HIPAA), ethical, reimbursement, emerging technologies, and interprofessional issues related to informatics and information systems.

LopesWrite

Description:

Refer to the LopesWrite webpage for guidance regarding assignments requiring submission to LopesWrite.

APA Writing Style

Description:

APA Style is required for all writing assignments in this course, where indicated. Please prepare these assignments according to the APA Style Guide, located in the in the Student Success Center.

You may want to consider purchasing a copy of the APA style guide as this will be a useful resource throughout your program

NUR 514 Topic 1: Health Care Systems, Organizational Relationships, And Interprofessional Health Care Environments

Objectives:

  1. Discuss the evolution of the U.S. health care system its impact on nursing and the delivery of care.
  2. Explain how interprofessional relationships increase collaboration and improve patient outcomes.
  3. Examine how leaders benefit from applying systems thinking.

Resources

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Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514

Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession

Read Chapter 7 in Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession.

View Resource

Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care

Read Chapter 9 in Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care.

View Resource

Interprofessional Collaboration: Three Best Practice Models of Interprofessional Education

Read “Interprofessional Collaboration: Three Best Practice Models of Interprofessional Education,” by Bridges, Davidson, Odegard,

… Read More

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081249/

Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: 2016 Update

Read “Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: 2016 Update,” by the Interprofessional Education Collaborat

… Read More

https://ipec.memberclicks.net/assets/2016-Update.pdf

Using Systems Thinking to Envision Quality and Safety in Healthcare

Read “Using Systems Thinking to Envision Quality and Safety in Healthcare,” by Stalter and Mota, from Nursing Management

… Read More

https://journals.lww.com/nursingmanagement/fulltext/2018/02000/using_systems_thinking_to_envision_quality_and.7.aspx

AONL Nurse Leader Competencies

Read “AONL Nurse Leader Competencies,” located on the American Organization for Nursing Leadership (AONL) website.

https://www.aonl.org/resourc

Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514 Topic 1 DQ 1

Aug 4-6, 2022

Consider the evolution of the U.S. health care system. Discuss how the shift to value-based health care has impacted delivery of care and the role and responsibilities of the advanced registered nurse. Project what major evolving trends in the health care delivery system will affect nursing practice and how advanced registered nurses will influence the direction of health care.

RC

Aug 6, 2022, 10:58 PM(edited)

Unread

Replies to RC

The healthcare system in the U.S. keeps evolving and yet still fragmented, and compared to other countries, the U.S. has higher healthcare spending. According to HEOR (n.d.), the U.S. healthcare system can be defined as a mixed system, as there is no universal coverage. There is government funding, which includes Medicare and Medicaid, and privately financed or from private health insurance plans and out-of-pocket payments.

In 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or “Obamacare,” or the comprehensive health care reform law, was enacted. Davalon (2022) stated that the ACA significantly changed the U.S. healthcare system by reducing the amount individuals and families paid for uncompensated care. The U.S. healthcare system began to experience a shift in how healthcare services are delivered and paid for after the ACA (Veradigm, n.d.). Many health care reforms have been implemented to emphasize quality of care over quantity (Veradigm, n.d.).

According to Veradigm (n.d.), “Value-based healthcare is a healthcare delivery framework that incentivizes healthcare providers to focus on the quality of services rendered, as opposed to the quantity.” As The University of Michigan (2021) stated, the three main goals of Value-Based Care are often referred to as the triple aim: better care for individuals, improved public health, and lower costs. In addition, BVC acknowledges that “higher health care costs do not lead to better outcomes” and that provider workflow designed to maximize throughput can lower the quality of Care (U.M., 2021).

BVC also promotes the kind of collaborative partnerships among providers, administrators, and patients that drive down costs while improving standards of Care (U.M., 2021). Comunale et al. (2021) stated that with the radical change in the healthcare system, hospital organizations had to evaluate new models of care that will support high-quality but low-cost care while maintaining timely patient access and reduced wait times. They stated that collaboration between physicians and Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) would be the key mechanism to providing care in the new care model. Nurse leaders have several roles to play in VBC; they can help expand the scope of advanced practice registered nurses’ practice across the U.S., reducing costs and expanding access to care (U.M., 2021).  

Word Count: 356

References: 

Comunale et al. (2021). Integrating Advanced Practice Providers into value-based care strategies: One organization’s journey to achieve success through interprofessional collaboration  

https://www.acponline.org/system/files/documents/practice-resources/patient-interprofessional-education/teambased-care-toolkit/integratng_advanced_practice_providers_-jiep.pdf 

Davalon (2022). History and Timeline of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) 

https://www.ehealthinsurance.com/resources/affordable-care-act/history-timeline-affordable-care-actaca#:~:text=The%20ACA%20significantly%20changed%20the,who%20cannot%20afford%20a%20plan.  

Heor, (n.d.). U.S. Healthcare System Overview-Background 

https://www.ispor.org/heor-resources/more-heor-resources/us-healthcare-system-overview/us-healthcare-system-overview-background-page-1 

Veradigm, (n.d.). What is Value-based healthcare? A comprehensive guide. https://veradigm.com/what-is-value-based-healthcare/#:~:text=Value%2Dbased%20healthcare%20is%20a,based%20upon%20patient%20health%20outcomes

The University of Michigan, (2021). Value-Based Nursing Care Strategies & Readiness Checklist 

https://online.nursing.umich.edu/blog/value-based-nursing-care-strategies-and-readiness-checklist/ 

Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514  Topic 1 DQ 2

Aug 4-8, 2022

Based on your experience, explain how systems thinking helps leaders to build strong interprofessional and organizational relationships. Discuss some system thinking tools nursing leaders can apply to increase interprofessional collaboration to benefit patient outcomes or organizational initiatives. Make sure to incorporate the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competencies in your response.

NUR 514 Topic 2: Professional Leadership

Objectives:

  1. Differentiate between leadership and management.
  2. Analyze different leadership theories and styles.
  3. Analyze characteristics of the professional nurse leader and nursing leadership.
  4. Evaluate leadership and management strategies within health care organizations.
  5. Discuss potential causes of conflict, principles of negotiation, and conflict resolution models and strategies.

Resources

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Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession

Read Chapters 4 and 27 in Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession.

View Resource

Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care

Read Chapters 2-4, 7, and 14 in Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care.

View Resource

Great Leaders Inspire Great Followership

Read “Great Leaders Inspire Great Followership,” by Cruz, from Leadership Excellence (2014).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=97399121&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=s8333196&groupid=main&profile=ehost

Advancing the Nursing Profession Begins With Leadership

Read “Advancing the Nursing Profession Begins With Leadership,” by O’Neill, from Journal of Nursing Administration (2013

… Read More

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://gateway.ovid.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=ovft&AN=00005110-201304000-00001&PDF=y

From Trait to Transformation: The Evolution of Leadership Theories

Read “From Trait to Transformation: The Evolution of Leadership Theories,” by Johns and Moser, from Education (1989).

… Read More

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=4717838&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Nursing Leadership From Bedside to Boardroom: Opinion Leaders’ Perceptions

Read “Nursing Leadership From Bedside to Boardroom: Opinion Leaders’ Perceptions,” by Blizzard, Khoury, and McMurray (2015), loca

… Read More

Nursing Leadership From Bedside to Boardroom: Opinion Leaders’ Perceptions

Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Approach for the Situation

Read “Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Approach for the Situation,” located on the Mind Tools website.

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm

Transformational Leadership: Becoming an Inspirational Leader

Read “Transformational Leadership: Becoming an Inspirational Leader,” located on the Mind Tools website.

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/transformational-leadership.htm

Servant Leadership: Putting Your Team First, and Yourself Second

Read “Servant Leadership: Putting Your Team First, and Yourself Second,” located on the Mind Tools website.

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/servant-leadership.htm

What Is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?

Read “What Is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?” by Murray (2014), located on The Wall Street Journa

… Read More

Leadership versus Management: What is the difference?

An Alternative Approach to Nurse Manager Leadership

Read “An Alternative Approach to Nurse Manager Leadership,” by Henriksen, from Nursing Management (2016).

https://journals.lww.com/nursingmanagement/Fulltext/2016/01000/An_alternative_approach_to_nurse_manager.13.aspx

Nurse Manager Skills Inventory

Complete the “Nurse Manager Skills Inventory,” by the Nurse Manager Leadership Partnership (NMLP), located on the HWE Resources p

… Read More

https://www.aacn.org/nursing-excellence/healthy-work-environments/hwe-resources

Leadership Style Reflective Essay Assignment Self-Assessment Resources

These resources will be used to complete the Leadership Style Reflective Essay assignment, due in this topic. Please refer to the assignm

… Read More

What Is Servant Leadership?

Explore the “What Is Servant Leadership?” page of the Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership website.

https://www.greenleaf.org/wh

Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514 Topic 2 DQ 1

Aug 11-13, 2022

Differentiate between “leading” and “managing.” Based on your experience in the health care industry, explain how an advanced registered nurse can lead well and provide management. Share at least one strategy you have used to effectively lead and manage staff within health care organizations Consider interactions with patients, team members, daily tasks, and responsibilities as you formulate your response.

JD

Aug 13, 2022, 10:05 PM

Unread

Replies to AL

I have always seen managers and leaders as two separate roles. The title of manager comes with the job and authority they were given. A leader is a title that is earned with credibility and vision. Management focuses on efficiency, function and processes while leadership focuses on relationship, interactions and influence (Weberg et al., 2019). Not all managers are good leaders, and anyone can be a good leader. Managing is performing the defined technical skills and duties needed for maintaining a department of staff. Leading is inspiring, motivating or encouraging the team or individuals that do the work. 

Advanced practice registered nurse can both lead and provide management. Advanced practice nursing leadership and its contribution to improving the care environment for patients and families, nurses and other healthcare providers, organizations and the healthcare system (Lamb et al., 2018). APRNs have the education, expertise and skills to manage and lead nurses and their peers within their organizations. They know the business of health care and its challenges to meet the expectations of the organizations they belong to. APRNs have the technical knowledge and research skills to develop policy and strategies towards organizational goals and quality outcomes. As leaders, APRNs can have the ability to influence nurses and patients towards shared goals. APRNs must have good and direct communication skills to inspired and challenge others to meet desire outcomes. 

As a nurse manager one strategy I use to manage and lead my team is open, honest and effective communication.  I accomplish this with rounding daily with my team and patients. I first start my day with a morning huddle meeting with staff and reviewing our organizational and department goals and opportunities. I elicit feedback and advice from them on what are the barriers and issues that may prevent them from delivering good care and understand their concerns. And throughout the day I try to meet with each one individually starting off casually then some to a more simi-formal meeting. I tend to incorporate servant leadership with active listening, stewardship and growth. It is important to maintain trust and understanding between my staff and myself. When I round with patients I focus on active listening, providing empathy and making sure their individual needs are met. 

Word Count: 372

References:

Lamb, A., Martin-Misener, R., Bryant-Lukosius, D., & Latimer, M. (2018). Describing the leadership capabilities of advanced practice nurses using a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing open, 5(3), 400–413. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.150

Weberg, D., Mangold, K., Porter-O’Grady, T., & Malloch, K. (2019). Leadership in nursing practice: Changing the landscape of health care (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284146530

Evolution of the US Healthcare System NUR 514 Topic 2 DQ 2

Aug 11-15, 2022

Discuss potential causes of conflict occurring within health care organizations. What are some principles of negotiation and conflict resolution used by the nurse leader to address conflict? What model or leadership theory would be effective to use in addressing conflict?

NUR 514 Topic 3: Organizational Change Theories And Strategies

Objectives:

  1. Discuss the advanced registered nurse’s role as change agent within the interprofessional health care environment.
  2. Analyze factors driving organizational change within health care organizations.
  3. Evaluate change theories and collaborative models for promoting change.
  4. Evaluate the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of practice change.

Resources

Collapse All ResourcesCollapse All

Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession

Read Chapter 5 in Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Review Chapter 7.

View Resource

Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care

Read Chapter 1 in Leadership in Nursing Practice: Changing the Landscape of Health Care.

View Resource

Loom

Loom is a free video recording tool that allows you send messages through shareable videos. For assistance on installing the softwa

… Read More

https://support.gcu.edu/hc/e

Topic 3 DQ 1

Aug 18-20, 2022

Describe an organizational change model that can be used in a dynamic health care environment. Based on this model, how is organizational change is managed? What role do stakeholders play during organizational change?

Topic 3 DQ 2

Aug 18-22, 2022

You have been selected to serve on a community outreach committee within your state’s nursing organization. The committee includes registered nurses of different specialties. At your first meeting, it becomes evident that not everyone is in agreement with a recent position statement about the role of spiritual care, with some members arguing they will no longer support the committee if the position statement is not revised or reversed. As a nurse leader and change agent, how would you approach the committee?  How could you draw from change theory to address these concerns and encourage collaboration on the committee?

Topic 2 APA Assignment: Leadership Style Reflective Essay

Assessment Description

The purpose of this assignment is to assist learners in developing effective communication by emphasizing the proper application of APA style. APA style is required for the graduate program.

Refer to the resources in the Class Resources and Student Success Center for assistance with APA. Use the APA Style Guide resource, located in the Student Success Center, to complete this assignment.

For this assignment, complete the following:

Self-Assessment

Self-awareness is essential for developing leadership skills. Recognizing your own strengths, weaknesses, and values, and understanding emotional intelligence and learning styles can help you to be a more effective nurse leader.

For this assignment, you have the opportunity to take a variety of self-assessments to learn more about yourself and identify your assets and weaknesses as a leader. This will assist you in discovering how you can improve your own self-leadership skills. You will be asked to think critically about your results and submit a reflection as directed below.

Refer to the topic Resources. Select and complete three self-assessments. Be sure to document the results of each assessment to assist you in completing the reflection portion of the assignment below.

Self-Assessment Reflection

Becoming self-aware is an ongoing process requiring introspection. The more often people practice self-reflection, the more opportunities they have to understand their own behaviors and adapt their approaches to working with other people, which can improve both your own and other’s abilities to meet their professional goals.

In a 1,000-1,250 word reflective essay, address the following:

  1. Provide a rationale and brief summary for selecting each self-assessment. Summarize the results you obtained on each assessment.
  2. Identify the leadership style that closely aligns to your philosophy of care and explain what appeals to you about that style.
  3. Reflect on how you might incorporate elements of that particular style as you exercise leadership in a practice or health care organization setting.
  4. Discuss any particular areas for improvement the assessments helped you identify and some steps for improving your leadership capabilities.
  5. Analyze the characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership. Discuss the characteristics and explain why they are effective for leadership in nursing.
  6. Analyze different leadership theories and leadership styles. Select one theory and leadership style, different from your own, and explain how they each support a professional nurse leader or individual in nursing leadership. Consider how the theory shapes the nurse leader in such things as collaboration, conflict resolution, decision making, and negotiation.

You are required to cite three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Attachments

Rubric Criteria

Collapse All Rubric CriteriaCollapse All

Summary of Self-Assessment Selections and Results

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Summary of Self-Assessment Selections and Results

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

A comprehensive summary of why each self-assessment was selected and the results obtained on each assessment is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

A summary of why each self-assessment was selected and the results obtained on each assessment is clearly provided and well developed.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

A summary of why each self-assessment was selected and the results obtained on each assessment is present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

A summary of why each self-assessment was selected and the results obtained on each assessment is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

A summary of why each self-assessment was selected and the results obtained on each assessment is not included.

A Specific Leadership Style That Aligns With Philosophy of Care, Including Appeal

6.25 points

Criteria Description

A Specific Leadership Style That Aligns With Philosophy of Care, Including Appeal

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

A comprehensive discussion of a specific leadership style that aligns with philosophy of care, including appeal, is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

A discussion of a specific leadership style that aligns with philosophy of care, including appeal, is clearly provided and well developed.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

A discussion of a specific leadership style that aligns with philosophy of care, including appeal, is present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

A discussion of a specific leadership style that aligns with philosophy of care, including appeal, is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

A discussion of a specific leadership style that aligns with philosophy of care, including appeal, is not included.

Reflection on How to Incorporate Elements of the Leadership Style

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Reflection on How to Incorporate Elements of the Leadership Style

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

A comprehensive reflection on how to incorporate elements of the leadership style is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

A reflection on how to incorporate elements of the leadership style is clearly provided and well developed.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

A reflection on how to incorporate elements of the leadership style is present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

A reflection on how to incorporate elements of the leadership style is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

A reflection on how to incorporate elements of the leadership style is not included.

Areas for Self-Improvement, Including Steps to Improve Leadership Capabilities

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Areas for Self-Improvement, Including Steps to Improve Leadership Capabilities

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

A comprehensive discussion of areas for self-improvement, including steps to improve leadership capabilities, is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

A discussion of areas for self-improvement, including steps to improve leadership capabilities, is clearly provided and well developed.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

A discussion of areas for self-improvement, including steps to improve leadership capabilities, is present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

A discussion of areas for self-improvement, including steps to improve leadership capabilities, is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

A discussion of areas for self-improvement, including steps to improve leadership capabilities, is not included.

Characteristics of Effective Professional Nurse Leader

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Characteristics of Effective Professional Nurse Leader

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

Characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership, are thoroughly discussed. A detailed explanation for why these are effective for leadership in nursing is clearly presented.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

Characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership, are discussed. An explanation for why these are effective for leadership in nursing is presented.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

Characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership, are summarized. An explanation why these are effective for leadership in nursing is outlined.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership, are only partially discussed.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, or individuals in nursing leadership, are not discussed.

Application of Leadership Theory and Style Different Personal Style

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Application of Leadership Theory and Style Different Personal Style

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

A different theory and leadership style, and how they support a professional nurse leader, or individual in nursing leadership are clearly explained. How the theory shapes the nurse leader in such things as collaboration, conflict resolution, decision making, and negotiation is thoroughly discussed.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

A different theory and leadership style, and how they support a professional nurse leader, or individual in nursing leadership are explained. How the theory shapes the nurse leader in such things as collaboration, conflict resolution, decision making, and negotiation is generally discussed.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

A different theory and leadership style, and how they support a professional nurse leader, or individual in nursing leadership are summarized. How the theory shapes the nurse leader in such things as collaboration, conflict resolution, decision making, and negotiation is outlined.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

A different theory and leadership style, and how they support a professional nurse leader, or individual in nursing leadership, are only partially discussed.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

A different theory and leadership style, and how they support a professional nurse leader, or individual in nursing leadership, are omitted.

Required Sources

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Required Sources

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

Number of required resources is met. Sources are current, and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

Number of required sources is met. Sources are current, but not all sources are appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

Number of required sources is met, but sources are outdated or inappropriate.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Number of required sources is only partially met.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not included.

Title Page

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Title Page

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

The title page is presented. The required format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

The title page is presented. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

The title page is presented. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

The title page reflects some required formatting, but overall it is not correctly applied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

The title page is not formatted according to required style. The title page is omitted.

Introduction

12.5 points

Criteria Description

Introduction

  1. 5: Excellent

12.5 points

The introduction is presented. The required formatting is applied correctly. There are no errors.

  1. 4: Good

11.5 points

The introduction is presented. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

11 points

An introduction is presented. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

An introduction is presented but the overall required formatting is not consistently or correctly applied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

The introduction is not presented in required format. The introduction is omitted.

Main Body

18.75 points

Criteria Description

Main Body

  1. 5: Excellent

18.75 points

The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. The required formatting is applied correctly. There are no errors.

  1. 4: Good

17.25 points

The sections of the main body are clear. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

16.5 points

The sections of the main body are generally identifiable. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

15 points

The main body is disorganized. Overall, the required formatting is not consistently or correctly applied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

The required formatting is not used for the main body.

APA Style Citations

12.5 points

Criteria Description

APA Style Citations

  1. 5: Excellent

12.5 points

All sources are cited. The required style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.

  1. 4: Good

11.5 points

All sources are cited. The required style and format are applied and mostly correct. There may be one or two errors.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

11 points

Most sources are cited. One may be missing. The required style and format are typically applied. Some errors are present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

Citation of sources is incomplete. The use of the required style for citation of sources is inconsistent and incorrect.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not cited throughout. The required style is not used for citations. Sources are not included.

Appendix

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Appendix

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the appendix. The required formatting is applied correctly. There are no errors.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the appendix. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the appendix. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

The APA Writing Checklist is attached in the appendix but is incomplete. The appendix reflects some of the required formatting, but overall it is not correctly applied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

The appendix is not formatted according to the required style. The appendix and APA Writing Checklist are omitted.

References

6.25 points

Criteria Description

References

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, and format is free of error.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

Sources are documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, and format is mostly correct.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the appendix. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.Sources are documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, although some formatting errors may be present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Documentation of sources using a References page is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, with numerous formatting errors.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented. A References page is not included.

Thesis Development and Purpose

12.5 points

Criteria Description

Thesis Development and Purpose

  1. 5: Excellent

12.5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

  1. 4: Good

11.5 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

11 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

10 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)

6.25 points

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)

  1. 5: Excellent

6.25 points

The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

  1. 4: Good

5.75 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

  1. 3: Satisfactory

5.5 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory

5 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is employed.

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